The China History Podcast

The China History Podcast

Australia

Laszlo Montgomery presents topics covering 5,000 years of Chinese history and culture.

Episodes

CHP-183-The Nanjing Massacre Part 2  

Laszlo finishes off the overview of the Rape of Nanking as well as the stories of John Rabe, Robert O. Wilson, Minnie Vautrin, Rev. William Magee and others who directed the Nanjing Safety Zone during the worst weeks of the atrocities.  The aftermath of the Nanjing Massacre is also examined.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

The Nanjing Safety Zone   Nánjīng Ānqúan Qū 南京安全区

Jīnlíng Women's College 金陵女子大学 Now part of Nanjing Normal University

Jīnlíng 金陵  ancient name of Nanjing during the Zhou Dynasty

Zhū Dé 朱德 Red Army founder

Péng Déhuái 彭德怀 Great PLA general and later defense minister

Nana-san-ichi Butai  731部队 Unit 731, based in Harbin

General Shiro Ishii 石井四郎 Director of Unit 731

Joseph Mengele The German version of Shiro Ishii.

Nánjīng Dà Túshā 南京大屠杀 The Nanjing Massacre

Okamura Yasuji  岡村宁次 Japanese general who led the brutal Three All’s Policy to Kill all, Burn all, Loot all

Yasukuni Shrine 靖国神社 Shinto shrine that commemorates those who died for the Empire of Japan

Shì shí qiú shì   实事求是 seek truth from facts, originally from the ancient Book of Han, later made famous by Chairman Mao and then even more famous by Deng Xiaoping.

 

LINKS:

Iris Chang, "The Rape of Nanking - The Forgotten Holocaust if World War II"

"The Good German of Nanking - The Diaries of John Rabe"

Jay Taylor, "The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China"

Rana Mitter, "Forgotten Ally: China's World War II 1937-1945"

Honda Katsuichi, "The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame"

Sinica Podcast April 7, 2015 with Lucy Hornby "Comfort Women and the struggle for reparations"

Isaac Meyer's excellent History of Japan Podcast

YouTube link to the Nanking movie mentioned in CHP-183 Nanjing Massacre Part 2

CHP-182-The Nanjing Massacre Part 1  

By popular demand Laszlo finally introduces the Nanjing Massacre.  This is a very emotional, controversial and sensitive subject for a whole lot of reasons.  Over the next two episodes Laszlo will review material from past episodes to discuss the lead-up to the Massacre. Then in Part 2 the actual event itself as well as the story of the Nanjing Safety Zone and some of the foreigners who became eyewitnesses to the horrors of the Nanjing Massacre.  It's also referred to as the Nanking Massacre and the Rape of Nanking.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Rape of Nanking Nánjīng Dà Túshā 南京大屠杀 (Japanese 南京大虐杀) Also referred to as the Nanjing (Nanking) Massacre.

Zēng Guófán 曾国藩  1811-1872 Viceroy of Zhili, founder of the Xiang Army that helped put down the Taiping Rebellion.

Zhào Qīzhèng 赵启正  PRC official who has mostly been associated with news organizations.

Kublai Khan 忽必烈 Yuan Dynasty founder and grandson of Chinggiz Khan

Zhāng Chúnrú 张纯如 Iris Chang 1968-2004, American writer.

Honda Katsuichi 本多勝 Japanese journalist and writer who wrote extensively on the Rape of Nanking.

Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarian (Japanese 攘夷勅命 Sonnō Jōi)

Zūnwáng Rǎngyí 尊王攘夷 The Mandarin version of the above phrase.

Lǐ Hóngzhāng 李鸿章 1823-1901 Successor to Zeng Guofan, top late Qing era diplomat

Treaty of Shimonoseki 下关条约 Signed 1895 at conclusion of 1st Sino-Japanese war

Zhāng Zuòlín 张作霖 Warlord of Manchuria from 1922 - 1928.

Prime Minister Hamaguchi Osachi 濱口雄幸 Japanese Prime Minister 1929-1931

Jiǔyībā  九一八 The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931

Manchukuo (Mǎnzhōuguó) 满洲国 Lasted from 1932 to 1945. Puppet state in Manchuria

Pǔ Yí 溥仪 The last Qing Emperor, also known as the Xuantong 宣统帝Emperor. Emperor of Manchukuo.

Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi 犬養毅 Japanese prime Minster from 1931-1932.

Héběi 河北 Northern province of China, where Beijing and Tianjin are geographically located.

Shānxī 山西 Northern Province of China, capital at Taiyuan

Shāndōng 山东 Coastal northern province

Tiānjìn 天津 Northern city in China just east of Beijing

Lúshān 庐山 Mountain resort in Jiangxi popular with Nationalist and Communist leaders as a meeting place.

Jiāngxī 江西 Province in China, capital at Nanchang

Zhōu Dynasty 周朝  Ancient dynasty of China

Bái Chóngxǐ 白崇禧  NRA general, close ally to Li Zongren

Lǐ Zōngrén 李宗仁 Major military and political figure during the 1920's and 30's. Had a stormy relationship with Chiang Kai-shek.

Chóngqìng 重庆 City in Sichuan province, now a stand-alone municipality

Wǔhàn 武汉 City in Hubei on the Yangzi River

Lǎobǎixìng 老百姓 The people, in this case the Chinese people, (the old 100 surnames).

Jiāng-Zhè  江浙区 region Abbreviation for the Jiangsu-Zhejiang region

Yamaguchi Tsutomu 山口 彊 1916-2010 A survivor of both the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings August 6 and 9, 1945.

Nánchāng 南昌 Capital city of Jiangxi province

Táng Shēngzhì  唐生智   Nationalist general who was tasked with defending Nanjing

Sūn Quán  孙权 Three Kingdoms era leader of the State of Sun Wu.

Matsui Iwane 松井石根  Imperial Japanese Army Commander-in-chief for the Shanghai-Nanjing Region

Nakajima Kesago 中岛今朝吾  Lt. Gen. in the Imperial Japanese Army

Yanagawa Heisuke 柳川平助 General in the Imperial Japanese Army

Sūzhōu 苏州 City in Jiangsu province renowned for a thousand things

Emperor Hirohito (Emperor Showa 昭和天皇) Emperor of Japan 1926-1989

Prince Asaka Yasuhiko 朝香宮鳩彦王 1887-1981 General in the Imperial Japanese Army, uncle of Emperor Hirohito.

Ānhuī 安徽   Province in central China

LINKS:

Iris Chang, "The Rape of Nanking - The Forgotten Holocaust if World War II"

"The Good German of Nanking - The Diaries of John Rabe"

Jay Taylor, "The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China"

Rana Mitter, "Forgotten Ally: China's World War II 1937-1945"

Honda Katsuichi, "The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame"

Sinica Podcast April 7, 2015 with Lucy Hornby "Comfort Women and the struggle for reparations"

Isaac Meyer's excellent History of Japan Podcast

YouTube link to the Nanking movie mentioned in CHP-183 Nanjing Massacre Part 2

CHP-181-The Early Years of Sino-Russian Relations  

After more than 40 days wandering in the desert Laszlo is back with a topic that languished on the list for more than six years. At last the early years of Russia-China relations can see the light of day (here at Teacup Media, that is). As you can see, this is another one of those hour plus episodes that was not long enough for two episodes and a bit overly long for one. Basically this covers the beginnings back in the late Ming when they first met and mostly in the Qing where all the history happened. This isn't a particularly deep dive on the subject. I first give you a 走马看花 view of the history of Russia's expansion east and how they ended up on the doorstep of Manchuria. Hope you don't mind.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Míng Dynasty 明朝 Second to last dynasty in Chinese Imperial history 1368-1644

Lóngqìng 隆庆 Ming Dynasty Emperor (1567-1572)

Wànlì 万里 Son of Longqing Emperor, reigned a long time 1572-1620

Qing Dynasty 清朝 Last imperial dynasty in China 1644-1912

Xīnjiāng 新疆   Autonomous Region in the northwest of China, formerly referred to as Chinese Turkestan

Hēilóng Jiāng 黑龙江 The Black Dragon River (The Amur, and name of Heilongjiang Province)

Shùn Zhì 顺治   First emperor of the Qing Dynasty, 1643-1661

Pǔyí 溥仪   The Last Emperor, a.k.a. The Xuantong Emperor, reigned 1908-1912

Northern Sòng  北宋 The first half of the Song Dynasty, lasted from 960-1126

Kāngxī   康熙   Long reigning Qing Emperor, 1661-1722

Jiāyùguān   嘉峪关   The western terminus of the Great Wall of China

Songgotu (Suǒ'étú) 索额图 Manchu diplomat during the reign of Kangxi

Qiánlóng  乾隆  Another long reigning Qing emperor, 1735-1796

Treaty of Nanjing  南京条约 The marquee "Unequal Treaty" signed in 1842

Hóng Xiùquán 洪秀全 Rebel leader responsible for the Taiping Rebellion

Jīntián, Guangxi 广西金田   Place where the Taiping Rebellion was launched

Tàipíng Rebellion  太平天国运动   A bloody Rebellion and Civil War all in one, 1850-1864

Hēihé 黑河    City in northeast Manchuria (Heilongjiang) formerly known as Aigun

Aìhún   瑷珲 Now called Heihe, formerly called Aigun, site of the signing of the Treaty of Aigun.

Yìshān 奕山 Manchu diplomat who was forced into signing the Treaty of Aigun

Qíshàn 琦善   Manchu diplomat also forced to sign unequal treaties

Lín Zéxú 林则徐   Chinese hero who stood up to the foreign traders and torched their opium

Hǔmén  虎门   Located on "The Bogue" in Guangdong, site where Lin Zexu burned the opium

Guǎngdōng 广东  Southern province in China

Convention of Chuenbi   穿鼻草约  (Chuānbí Cǎoyuē) signed 1841, never ratified.

Ili  伊犁   (Yīlí) Town, valley and river name at the northwest border of Xinjiang - Kazakhstan

Zuǒ Zōngtáng   左宗棠  (1812-1885) Military leader and statesman from Hunan

Li-Lobanov Treaty 中俄密约   (known as the Zhōng É Mìyuē ), signed 1896

Lǐ Hóngzhāng 里鸿章   Co-signer of the Li-Lobanov Treaty), Chinese diplomat and statesman

Liaotung Peninsula  辽东半岛 (Liáodōng Bàndǎo) The tip of peninsular Liaoning Province

Lǚ Dà Zūdì Tiáoyuē 旅大租地条约   Convention for the Lease of the Liaotung Peninsula at Dalian (大连)

Port Arthur Also known as Lüshunkou (旅顺口), Port located at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula

Qīngdǎo 青岛   Scenic city in Shandong, once a German concession

Wēihǎiwèi  威海卫   Another scenic city in Shandong, once a British concession, today known simply as Weihai 威海

If you'd like to brush up on your Russian History, may I recommend an old stalwart of mine:

MARK SCHAUSS, PRESENTER OF THE RUSSIAN RULERS PODCAST

I call it "The CHP of Russian History"

 

CHP-180-The Earliest Years of Christianity in China  

Many people don't know that the first preaching of Christianity in China pre-dated the Jesuits by more than nine centuries.  We'll take a second cursory look at the Jesuits as part of a bigger story that includes Christianity in China during the Tang and Yuan dynasties.  We'll see that prior to the arrival of Matteo Ricci, there were two other lesser known attempts to grow Christianity in China.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Āluóběn   阿罗本 Nestorian monk who visited Chang'an in 635 CE

Dàqín Jǐngjiào liúxíng Zhōngguó bēi 大秦景教流行中国碑 "A Monument Commemorating the Propagation of the Dàqín Luminous Religion of China" or "The Story of the Coming of the Religion of Light from the West to China."

Jǐngjiào   景教 Nestorian Christianity

Tiānzhǔjiào   天主教 Roman Catholicism "the religion of the Lord of Heaven"

Dōngzhèngjiào   东正教 Eastern Orthodox “the religion of Eastern Truth”

Jīdūjiào 基督教 Protestantism

Jīdū 基督 Christ

jiào 教 religion or teaching

Xīn Jiào 新教   the New religion

Lǐ Shìmín 李世民 2nd son of Li Yuan, the Tang founder

Táng Tàizōng   唐太宗 Taizong Emperor, formerly known as Li Shimin

Fáng Xuánlíng   房玄龄   Chancellor under Taizong

Zhōu Gōng 周公 Duke of Zhou

Dù Rúhuì   杜如晦 Chancellor under Taizong, colleague of Fang Xuanling

Cháng'ān   长安 Capital of Tang Dynasty China (present day Xian)

Jǐngjìng   景淨 Christian monk who wrote the story of Alopen on the Nestorian Stele

Dàqín 大秦 Rome

Xīān 西安 Capital of Shaanxi province, location of ancient of Chang'an

Jǐngjiào bēi   景教碑 The Nestorian Stele (or Tablet)

bēi 碑 a stele or stone tablet or monument.

Fùpíng County Shaanxi   陕西富平县 Northeast of Xian, the place where the stone came from that the Nestorian Stele was made from. Also the ancestral home of President Xi Jinping.

Bēilín Bówùguǎn   碑林博物馆 The Forest of Monuments Museum in Xian

Xīān Wénchāng Gate   西安文昌门 One of the ancient gates of Xian

Táng Wǔzōng   唐武宗 Tang Emperor from 840-846

Huáng Cháo Uprising   黄巢起义 Uprising lasting 881-884, weakened the Tang Dynasty.

Khanbaliq 汗八里 Capital of Yuan Dynasty China. Present day Beijing

Dàdū   大都 Great Capital...other name for Khanbaliq

Hàn Wǔdì   汉武帝 Western Han emperor from 141-87 BCE

Xiàmén   厦门 Ancient port city in Fujian

Quánzhōu   泉州 Another ancient port city in Fujian

Zhū Yuánzhāng   朱元璋 Ming Dynasty founder, also known as the Hongwu Emperor - reigned 1368-1398

Hóngwǔ Emperor 洪武帝 Zhu Yuanzhang, who came from humble beginnings and founded a dynasty.

Xú Guāngqǐ   徐光启 Also known as Paul Hsu, a colleague of Matteo Ricci

Lǐ Zhīzǎo 李之藻 Along with Xu Guangqi and Yang Tingyun, he was one of the Three Pillars of Catholicism in China.

Yáng Tíngyún  杨廷筠 One of the Three Pillars of Catholicism in China

Dorgan   多尔衮 Prince Regent during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor

Shùnzhì   顺治 1st Qing Emperor to rule over China 1643-1661

Kāngxī   康熙 Successor to Shunzhi, the longest reigning Chinese emperor 1661-1722

Yōngzhèng 雍正 Successor to the Kangxi Emperor

Luō Guànzhōng  罗贯中  Author of the classic novel "Romance of the Three Kingdoms

 

MATT SHEEHAN'S CHINAFORNIA NEWSLETTER - CHECK IT OUT HERE

 

JOHN ZHU'S THREE KINGDOMS PODCAST - Click here and check it out

 

Click here for Laszlo's past episode CHP-098-Ricci, Schall von Bell and Verbiest

 

CHP-179-The Ancient History of Silk  

Thanks to Carole in Virginia for giving me enough of a push to get this episode finally produced.  This might have been one of the first ten topics I came up with when I began writing the original list back in 2010.  The history of silk is really an amazing testament to humankind's ingenuity and the randomness of life since Neolithic times. I hope you enjoy this episode.  It turned out to be a much greater story than I was ever aware of.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:

Shén Nóng   神农 The Divine Farmer, god of agriculture and many other things

Qīng Dynasty   清朝   The last imperial dynasty in China - 1644-1911

Dèng Xiǎopíng   邓小平 Chairman of China Bridge Association and great Chinese leader during 20th century

Míng Dynasty   明朝 Second to the last dynasty...1368-1644

Táng   唐朝 Dynasty in China 618-907

Ānhuì   安徽 Province in China

Fújiàn   福建 Province in China

Sòng Dynasty   宋朝   Dynasty in China....960-1279

Yǎngsháo Wenhua 仰韶文化 Yangshao Culture in China..5000 to 3000 BCE more or less

Yángshuò County   阳朔县 One of the great sightseeing centers of China, near Guilin

Zhèngzhōu   郑州   City in Henan

Qīngtaí   清台村 Village in the northwest corner of Zhengzhou on the south bank of the Yellow River

Huāxià   华夏 The collective tribes that made up ancient core Han Chinese civilization

Xià County   夏县 County in south Shanxi on the border with Henan

Shānxī province   山西省 Province in China

Qiánshānyàng 钱山漾 town at the south end of Lake Tai near Húzhōu

Shāng Dynasty   商朝 China's first "official dynasty," lasted from 1600 to 1046 BCE

Huángdì   黄帝 The Yellow Emperor

Xī Líng Shì   西陵氏   The discoverer of silk and the primary wife of the Yellow Emperor

Léi Zǔ   嫘祖 Other name of Xi Ling Shi by which she is more commonly known

Cán Nǎinai   蚕奶奶 The Goddess of Silkworms

Cán 蚕 a silk-worm

Kǒngfūzǐ   孔夫子 Confucius

Shǐ Jì 史记Records of the Grand Historian

Lǐ Jì  礼记 Book of Rites

nǚgōng 女红 the feminine arts

Sūzhōu   苏州 City in Jiangsu Province

Nánjīng   南京   Capital city of Jiangsu province

Chéngdū   成都   The capital city of Sichuan province

Zhāng Qiān   张骞 Great Western Han Dynasty adventurer, instrumental in getting the Silk Road up and running

Hàn Wǔdì   汉武帝 Great Western Han Dynasty emperor

Wǔyí Mountains   武夷山 Mountains in northern Fujian where some of the best tea in the world comes from

Hétián   和田 Formerly called Khotan...a great trading kingdom in present day Xinjiang

Jìn Dynasty   晋朝 Dynasty in China: 265-420 CE

Suí   隋朝 Dynasty in China from 581-618

Cháng'ān   长安 Present day Xian in Shaanxi Province

Qiánlóng   乾隆 Emperor during the heyday of the Qing Dynasty, 1735-1796

 

Frank Lavin's new World War II book: "Home Front to Battlefront"

Web Site: EXPORT NOW if you're looking to break into the China online market with your product.

Website for SupChina.com ......everything you need to know to stay on top of China news......Only 3 minutes is all it takes (unless you read ALL the articles)

 

CHP-178-William Mesny Part 2  

In part two of this series examining the forgotten life of William Mesny, we hear the second half of his story in China. We're mostly using author David Leffman's 2016 book "The Mercenary Mandarin"

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Chéngdū   成都 Capital city of Sichuan

Khampa   康巴 Area in eastern Tibet bordering Sichuan

Yúnnán   云南 Southwestern province of China

Huí   回族 Musilm ethnic minority

Guìlín   桂林 Beautiful city in Guangxi

Lí River  漓江   River running through Guilin

Liǔzhōu   柳州 City in Guangxi

Róngshûi   融水 City near Liuzhou

Róng’ān   融安   City near Liuzhou

Dānzhōu   丹州   City near Liuzhou

Miao   苗族 Known as the Hmong in the US, one of China's ethnic minorities

Yáo   瑶族 one of China's ethnic minorities

Dòng   侗族 one of China's ethnic minorities

Zuǒ Zōngtáng   左宗棠 Successful Qing era general

Guìyáng   贵阳 Capital of Guizhou

Chóngqìng   重庆 Formerly part of Sichuan, now a Municipality

Lánzhōu   兰州   Capital of Gansu

Zhìlǐ   治理 Old province of China that no longer exists

Qīnghǎi   青海 Province in West China

Gānsù   甘肃   Province in West China

Níngxià   宁夏 Province in West-Central China

Shǎolín Temple   少林寺   Famous temple in China

Tàiyuán   太原   Capital of Shanxi

Shānxī   山西 Province in China

Bǎodìng   保定   City in Hebei

Lǐ Hóngzhāng   李鸿章 Chinese military leader and diplomat and signer of more than a couple unequal treaties.

Zhuōzhōu   涿州   City south of Beijing in Hebei

Zhāng Zhīdòng    张之洞 Reforming governor of Shanxi

Xīān   西安   Capital of Shaanxi

Qínlǐng Mountains   秦岭山   Mountain chain in southern Shaanxi

Kūnmíng   昆明   Capital of Yunnan

Dōngjīng   东京   Eastern Capital. Can mean Tokyo or Tungking (N. Vietnam)

Anhui   安徽 Province in Eastern China

Hefei   合肥   Capital of Anhui

Guǎngxī   广西   Province in southern China

Xinjiang   新疆  Province in northwest China

Shaanxi   陕西   Province in north-central China

Huangxing Road   黄兴路 Road in Hankou

 

 

The Mercenary Mandarin - amazon link to the book

Link to Blacksmith Books

Link to one of Mesny's Chinese Miscellany (Vol IV)

Link to John Pomfrets book "The Beautiful Country and the Middle Kingdom"

 

 

 

CHP-177-William Mesny Part 1  

In this first part of a two-part series we examine the forgotten life of William Mesny. Drawing from author David Leffman's 2016 book "The Mercenary Mandarin," Laszlo discusses an unknown character from the bad old days of late Qing Dynasty China. Though he never made it to the history books, he nonetheless witnessed and took part in a lot of it. Through Mesny we can once again wander through some of Imperial China's worst years.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Qīng 清朝 The Qing Dynasty 1644-1911

Bǎinián guóchǐ   百年国耻 China's Century of Humiliation

Lǐ Hóngzhāng   李鸿章  Famous Chinese military man and diplomat

Màishìní Huá-yīng Huìtōng   麦士尼华英会通  "Mesny's Chinese Miscellany"

Sòng 宋朝 The Song Dynasty

Tàipīng Tiāngguó   太平天国 Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Hóng Xiùquán   洪秀全 The head of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Guǎngxī   广西 Province in Southwest China

Húnán   湖南 Province on Central China

Cháng Shèng Jūn   常胜军 The Ever-Victorious Army

Zhìlǐ   治理 Old province of China that no longer exists

Húguǎng   湖广 Hubei - Hunan and surrounding areas

Liǎngguǎng 两广   Guangdong - Guangxi

Wǔhàn   武汉 Capital City of Hubei Province

Zhènjiāng   镇江 City in southwest Jiangsu

Sūzhõu   苏州   City in Jiangsu, called the Venice of China

Bǎoyīng   宝应 County in central Jiangsu

Jiāngsū 江苏 Coastal province in China

Yángzhōu   扬州 City in Jiangsu

Nânjīng   南京   Capital city of Jiangsu

Hànkǒu   汉口 City in Hubei, the "Han" in Wuhan

Wǔchāng   武昌 City in Hubei, the "Wu" of Wuhan

Hànyáng 汉阳 City in Hubei, part of Wuhan

Chóngqìng 重庆 Used to be part of Sichuan, now a municipality

Niǎn Jūn Qǐyì   捻军起义 The Nian Rebellion lasted from 1851 – 1868.

Miáo Rebellion   苗民起义 Three different rebellions share this name

Guìzhōu   贵州   Mountainous interior province in West China

Zuǒ Zōngtáng   左宗棠 Famous and very successful general during the Qing

Dungan Revolt 同治回辩 Tóngzhì Huí Biàn   Another in a long line of Muslim wars , this one against Yaqub Beg in the northwest of China.

Xīnjiāng   新疆 Province in northwest China

Zūnyì   遵义 City in Guizhou

Táng Jiǒng   唐炯 Governor of Sichuan and early benefactor of Mesny

Chóng'ān River   崇安河 River in Guizhou where Mesny's bridge stands

Shāndōng   山东 Coastal province in China

Jìnán   济南   Capital city of Shandong

Dīng Bǎozhēn  丁宝桢 Governor of Sichuan Province

Gōng Bǎo Jī Dīng   宫保鸡丁 Kung Pao Chicken

Gōng Bǎo   宫保 Palace Guardian

 

 

CHP-176-The History of the Teochew People  

In this episode Laszlo explains a little about the "Gagi Nang", the 自己人, known the world over as the Teochew (Chiu Chow or Chaozhou) people. Like the Hakka people, the Teochew's were originally from the Yellow River Valley and migrated to their present location on the Guangdong coast via Fujian province. Their language and culture is unique. Their food and Chaozhou culture is celebrated in more places than Chaozhou and not just by the people from that region. There are Chaozhounese people on every continent except maybe Antarctica. They're a proud group of people with a collective track record that is admirable by any standards of human achievement. The only mentions in this episode were of the Teochew's of South East Asia and the US. There are plenty of other lesser known or unknown histories of Teochew's in Canada, Europe, Mexico, Central and South America and of course Australia and New Zealand. The great 19th century Chinese diaspora is filled with stories, legends and historic events. The Chiu Chow people are a major part of everything that happened. They contributed not only to the society and the economy of their adoptive homelands, they still kept their ties with the eight districts of Chao-Shan.

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

 Teochew People 潮州人

Gaginang 自己人 What Teochew's call themselves in their dialect ("Our People")

Hakka People 客家人

Chaozhou   潮州 Mandarin pronunciation

Chiu Chow 潮州   Cantonese pronunciation

Chaoshan   潮汕 The term for the Chaozhou-Shantou-Jieyang region

Shantou   汕头 Port city of the Chaoshan region

Swatow   汕头 Shantou in the Teochew dialect

Jieyang   揭阳 The 3rd city to make up the Chaoshan region

Meizhou   梅州   Homeland of the Hakka people, located in Guangdong

Jin Dynasty 晋朝 Dynasty that ran 265-420 CE

Jürchen Jin dynasty 金朝 The dynasty that replaced the Northern Song 1115-1234

Henan   河南 Province of China

Shanxi   山西   Province of China

Han River 韩江 One of the three rivers of Chaoshan

Huanggang River   黃冈河 One of the three rivers of Chaoshan

Rong River  榕江 One of the three rivers of Chaoshan

Wu Hu  五胡 The Five Barbarian tribes

Han Dynasty  汉朝 Ancient dynasty of China 206 BCE - 220 CE

Xiongnu   匈奴 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Xianbei   鲜卑 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Jie 羯 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Qiang  羌 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia (and Tibet)

Di  氐 People from the northern steppe of Central Asia

Jiangnan  江南 South of the Yangzi River (Southern China)

Tang dynasty  唐朝 Dynasty of China 618 - 907

Fujian   福建 Southeast coastal province of China

Quanzhou   泉州 City in southern Fujian

Putian   莆田   City in southern Fujian

Yuan dynasty   元朝   Mongol-run Dynasty of China 1271-1368

Guangdong province   广东 Southernmost province of continental China

Wu  沪  The dialect of Shanghai and the surrounding region

Yue  粤 The Cantonese dialect

Xiang   湘   The Hunanese dialect

Gan   赣   The dialect of the Jiangxi region

Hakka   客家   The dialect of the Hakka people

Min   闽   The dialects of Fujian

Min River 闽江   The main river of Fujian

Minbei   闽北 North of the Min River

Minnan  闽南   South of the Min River

Hokkien  福建   Pronunciation of Fujian in the local dialect (and the people of course)

Xiamen  厦门 Major city in south Fujian

Zhangzhou  漳州  Major city in south Fujian

Hoklo 福佬  Cantonese for Fujian people

Fulao 福佬  The Mandarin pronunciation of Hoklo

He Luo 河洛 (also 河老) Another way of writing Hoklo

Fujian ren   福建人 Someone from Fujian

Hoa Kieu 华侨 Overseas Chinese (Vietnamese)

Qin Shihuang  秦始皇 First emperor of China 220 - 210 BCE

Nanhai Commandery  南海郡 The 郡 or commandery located in southern Guangdong

Zhou dynasty  周朝 Ancient dynasty of China 1046 - 256 BCE

Zhao Tuo   赵陀 Former Qin general who set up the Nanyue Kingdom in Southern China and Northern Vietnam

Nanyue Kingdom   南越国 A kingdom that lasted from 204 - 111 BCE

Han Emperor Wu   汉武帝 Han Dynasty emperor whose forces conquered the Nanyue and reigned 141 - 87 BCE

Sui  隋 Dynasty in China that preceded the Tang 581 - 618 CE

Emperor Wen of Sui   隋文帝 Founding emperor of the Sui

Chao Prefecture  潮州 Set up in 590, where Chaozhou got its name

Zhou 州 An ancient name for a prefecture

Chao’an County 潮安县 Set up during the Republic of China

Wenhua  文化   culture

Qianlong emperor 乾隆帝 Qing emperor reigned 1735-1796

Taiping Rebellion   太平天国运动 Violent upheaval in China lasting from 1850-1864

She Youjin 佘有进 Seah Eu Chin 1805 - 1883 - early Singapore Teochew community leader

She   佘 A Chinese surname (rhymes with 蛇)

Yu   余 The Chiense surname Yu......but compare it to the She above.

Liu Song Dynasty 刘宋朝 Dynasty in southern China during the Nanbei Chao 420-479

Nanbei Chao   南北朝 The Southern & Northern Dynasties period

Ngee Ann Kongsi (Yi'an Gongsi) 義安公司 Charitable foundation in Singapore

Chaozhou Bayi Huiguan 潮州八邑会馆 The Singapore Eight Districts Association

Chaoshan cai   潮汕菜 Term used to describe the food of the Chaoshan region

Rougucha 肉骨茶 a kind of a Chaozhou style meat soup

Lushui E   卤水鹅 Fine tasting Chaozhou goose dish....dip it in vinegar...The Ultimate umami!

dongxie   潮州冻蟹 A kind of crab in the shell (of course) eaten cold

Yao Ming   姚明 China basketball great and NBA superstar. Also a major anti-shark's fin soup crusader.

Yulu 鱼露 Nước mắm in Vietnamese, Fish Sauce in English

Shacha Sauce 沙茶醬 made from soybean oil, shallots, dried fish, dried shrimp and a nice kick of chili and garlic. Satay sauce

Chaozhou Guotiao 潮州粿条   hủ tiếu in Vietnamese, often spelled in English "Kway Teow"

Gongfu cha   工夫茶 A kind of tea service and traditional Chaozhou tea custom.

Tieguanyin   铁观音 The preferred tea for Chaozhou style gongfu tea.

Dancong Cha   蚕丛茶 Another kind of tea from the Chaoshan region of Guangdong. Not easy to get.

Chao Ju   潮剧 Chaozhou Opera

Nanxi  南戏 Southern Drama that was popular during the Later Song

Kun Qu  昆曲 Kun opera, the oldest form of Chinese opera

Tan   陈 Teochew for Chen, the #1 most popular Teochew surname

Lim   林 Teochew for Lin, the #2 most popular Teochew surname

Ng 黄 Teochew for Huang, the #3 most popular Teochew surname

Goh 吴 Teochew for Wu, the #4 most popular Teochew surname

Tay 郑 Teochew for Zheng, the #5 most popular Teochew surname

Li 李 Teochew for Li, the #6 most popular Teochew surname

Sir Li Ka-shing   李嘉诚爵士 Featured in CHP episode 13.

Wang Jianlin   王健林 Asia's reigning champion for richest man, founder and chairman of the Dalian Wanda Group.

Guangyuan 广元 Town in northeast Sichuan province

Wu Zetian   武则天 Amazing lady from the Tang dynasty, China's only real true empress

Joseph Lau 劉鑾雄 Boss of Chinese Estates Holdings

Lim Por-yen 林百欣  Lin Baixin... Boss of the Lai Sun Group

Albert Yeung...杨受成 Yang Shoucheng The main guy at the Emperor Group

Vincent Lo... 罗康瑞 Luo Kangrui of Sino Land (who gave us Shanghai's Xintiandi)

Xie Guomin 谢国民 Dhanin Chearavanont - Thailand's richest man and CP Group boss (sorry for mispronouncing his name)

Ma Huateng   马化腾 Pony Ma, founder of Ten Cent (騰訊控股有限公司) who gave us WeChat and QQ

David Tran 陈德 Họ Trần  Legendary founder of the company that gave us Sriracha sauce with the green bottle cap.

Huy Fong Foods   汇丰食品公司 David Tran's company, located in Irwindale, California

Zou ma kan hua   走马看花 To look at the flowers while riding a horse....a very superficial view.

  

Charles Antoine de Rouve and Jerome Scemla directed documentary La Guerre du Thé...Tea Wars

LINK TO WEBSITE

 

 

John Pomfret's new book

Amazon link to "The Beautiful Country and the Middle Kingdom"

 

PLEASE ALSO CHECK OUT:

THE CHINA VINTAGE HOUR

AND

THE CHINESE SAYINGS PODCAST

 

BOTH ARE NEW SHOWS FROM TEACUP MEDIA

CHP-175-Su Dongpo  

In this 175th episode Laszlo gives the great Northern Song jack-of-all-literary-trades Su Dongpo the once over. This isn't meant to be a deep dive into the reasons for all his renown in literature, calligraphy and painting. Instead, this is just a "popular Chinese historical" overview of who he was and the times he lived in.  And for those who never heard of him, this is a good intro. In America we have Washington Irving, Mark Twain, Hemingway and so on. In China....Su Shi would be mentioned when rattling off their best of the best. He was definitely a major guy not only in the Song, but in the overall world of Chinese culture as well.  The list of terms from this episode is particularly long this time.  You can see them below in the approximate order of their mention.  If you're interested to check out some of his poetry, here's an amazon link to a book of his poems translated by Burton Watson: Selected Poems of Su T'ung-P'o

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

 Ouyang Xiu 欧阳修 1007-1072 Northern Song statesman, historian, calligrapher, literatus extraordinaire

Wang Xizhi   王羲之 Called arguably the greatest Chinese calligrapher

Zhou   周 1046 BCE - 256 BCE Ancient dynasty of China

Han   汉   206 BCE - 220 CE Ancient dynasty of China

Jin   晋 265-420 Ancient dynasty of China

Sui   隋 581-618 Ancient dynasty of China

Tang 唐 618-907 Ancient dynasty of China

Song   宋 960-1279 Ancient dynasty of China

Kaifeng   开封 Capital of the Northern Song dynasty 960-1127

Northern Song 北宋 960-1127

Huizong   徽宗 The Northern Song emperor who "lost China" to the Jürchens

Su Dongpo   苏东坡 1037 - 1101 Our subject in this episode

Su Shi   苏轼 Su Dongpo's birth name

Tang Song Ba Da Jia   唐宋八大家 "Eight Great Men of Letters of the Tang and Song Dynasty

Han Yu   韩愈 768-824 - Tang essayist and poet. Major influence in development of Chinese literature

Liu Zongyuan 柳宗元 773-819 Tang waster of prose and poetry

Su Xun 苏洵 1009-1066 - Great man of letters and Father of Su Shi and Su Zhe

Su Zhe 苏辙   1039-1112 - Brother of Su Shi, also a great man of letters

Wang Anshi   王安石 1021-1086 - Song statesman and father of far reaching reforms. Also a great literary figure in his day.

Zeng Gong   曾鞏 1019-1083 - Great prose master of the Song

Hangzhou   杭州 Capital of Zhejiang and of dynasties past. Su Dongpo served there twice

Zhejiang   浙江 Province in east China

Meishan   眉山 City south of Chengdu, birthplace of the Three Su's, Su Xun, Su Dongpo and Su Zhe.

Min River 岷江 Yangzi tributary river in Sichuan, famous for the Duijangyan irrigation system

Leshan 乐山 City in Sichuan

Ya'an   雅安 Great tea city near Chengdu in Sichuan

Chengdu   成都 Ancient capital of Shu Kingdom, now capital of Sichuan

jinshi   进士   The highest degree that allowed you to fill the top positions in government

Wang Fu 王弗 1039-1065 - First wife of Su Dongpo

Henan  河南 Province in north China where it all began

doucha   斗茶 "Tea Battles" that were popular during the Song

Wang Runzhi   王闰之 1048-1093 2nd wife of Su Dongpo

Su Di   苏堤 the Su Causeway across West Lake in Hangzhou

Xin Fa   新法 The New Policies championed by the Shenzong Emperor and Wang Anshi

Shenzong    神宗 1048-1085 - Northern Song Emperor and Wang Anshi supporter

Sima Guang   司马光 1019-1086 Conservative Song scholar and official, writer of the Zizhi Tongijan

Luoyang   洛阳 City in Henan and former ancient capital of past dynasties.

Cheng Yi 程颐  One of the pride of Luoyang, Chinese philosopher

Zizhi Tongjian, the "Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance" A monumental historical work covering Chinese history from 403 BCE to 959 CE

Wutai Poem Incident 乌台诗案 In 1079, a poem by Su Shi got him in trouble and exiled fron the capital.

Huangzhou 黄州 Former name of Huanggang, now a district of that city

Hubei   湖北 Central province in China, capital is at Wuhan

Huanggang   黄冈 City just east of Wuhan in Hubei Province

Dongpo 东坡 Eastern slope

Dongpo Jushi 东坡居士 Dongpo, the retired scholar or Buddhist.

Chibi Fu   赤壁赋 Ode to Red Cliffs, famous poem by Su Shi

Hou Chibi Fu   后赤壁赋   The Later Ode to Red Cliffs, famous poem by Su Shi

Nian Nujiao Chibi Huaigu 念奴娇赤壁怀古 Remembering Chibi, Su Shi's third poem in this series about Red Cliffs

Zhuge Liang   诸葛亮 Great Shu-Han strategist during Three Kingdoms Period

Lu Su 鲁肃 Politician and general who worked for Sun Quan

Zhou Yu 周瑜 One of Sun Quan's main generals

Cheng Pu 程普 Another of Sun Quan's main generals

Sun Quan 孙权 Emperor of Eastern Wu, one of the Three Kingdoms

Liu Bei   刘备 Emperor of Shu Han, one of the Three Kingdoms

Cao Cao   曹操 King of Wei, one of the Three Kingdoms

Fu 赋 One of the three main types of Chinese Poetry, like rhymed prose

Ci 词 One of the three main types of Chinese Poetry, like lyric poetry

Han Shi Tie 寒食帖 Su Shi's most famous calligraphic work, now hanging in the National Palace Museum in Taipei

Huang Tingjian   黄庭坚 1045-1105 artist, scholar, official, a great Northern Song Master

Mi Fu 米芾 1051-1107 Great Song painter and calligrapher

Cai Xiang   蔡襄 1012-1067 One of the great calligraphers of the Northern Song

Song Si Jia 宋四家 the Four Great Calligraphers of the Song

Han Shi 寒食 is the holiday that occurs right before Qingming in April

Yan Zhenqing 颜真卿 708-785 Great calligrapher of the Tang and one of the greatest of all time

Zhezong 哲宗 Northern Song emperor, Reigned 1085-1100

Empress Dowager Gao 高太皇后 1032-1093 Empress of Northern Song emperor Yingzong, regent for Zhezong during his minority.

Dongpo Rou 东坡肉 Dongpo Pork

Zuo Zongtang 左宗棠   Hunan-born general from the Qing, the man who brought us General Tso's Chicken

Lou Wai Lou 楼外楼 Not the best restaurant in Hangzhou but one of the most famous. Been around over one hundred fifty years

Ni Zan, the late Yuan-early Ming painter.

Xu Wei, the Ming painter

Yuan Mei, the Qing dynasty scholar and artist.

Yuanyou era 元祐 Conservative era in Emperor Zhezong's reign that lasted 1086 to 1093

Huizhou 惠州 City in Guangdong where Su Dongpo served a stint

Hainan   海南 Island province off the coast of Guangdong

Danzhou   儋州 Coastal city in Hainan just west of Haikou

Haikou   海口 Capital city of Hainan

Dongpo Shuyuan   东坡书院

Wang Zhaoyun   王朝云 1062-1095 - 3rd wife of Su Dongpo

Changzhou   常州 City in Jiangsu

Jiangsu   江苏 Coastal province just north of Zhejiang

Cai Jing   蔡京 Long serving chancellor to Emperor Huizong

Cai Tao 蔡绦 Son of Cai Jing who had the audacity to say something nice about Su Dongpo

Shi 诗 The word meaning all Chinese poetry but also a specific kind as well.

Su Men Si Xueshi 苏门四学士 The Four Scholars at Su Shi's Gate

Zhang Lei   张耒 1054-1114 One of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Chao Buzhi 晁补之 One of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Qin Guan   秦观 1049-1100 - Northern Song writer and poet. Also one of the four scholars famous for being part of Su Shi's gang

Jin 金朝 The Jin Dynasty of the Jürchens 1115-1234

 

CHP-174-The Pirate Queen Zheng Yi Sao  

In this latest episode Laszlo finally gets around to the oft requested subject of piracy in early 19th century China.  Pirates had been a fact of life going back to the most olden days. Mid to late Qing Dynasty the amount of trade being plied on the China coast attracted pirates like never before.  Zheng Yi Sao ("Zheng Yi's Wife") was a tough woman from the Pearl River Delta who married the most notorious pirate of his day Zheng Yi.  Upon Zheng Yi's death, his widow took control of his massive pirate fleet.  With her adopted son, and later husband Cheung Po Tsai, she controlled what as, at the time, the largest pirate fleet that preyed on coastal dwellers and vessels engaged in trade. She later became an inspiration for many characters that appeared in books, movies, video games and other media.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Zheng Shi 郑氏 Madame Zheng, Widow Zheng

Zheng Yi Sao 郑一嫂 Zheng Yi Sao, wife of Zheng Yi

haidao   海盗 pirate

Zhejiang   浙江 East coast province of China

Guangdong   广东  Southernmost province of continental China

Tây Sơn Rebellion   Major uprising in Vietnam from 1770 to 1802

Binh Dinh Province   South central coastal province in Vietnam

Da Nang   Vietnam's 3rd largest city

Nha Trang   Coastal city in Vietnam

Xishan   西山 West Mountain (Tây Sơn in Vietnamese)

Guangxi   广西 One province over from Guangdong

Shi   石 Common Chinese surname, means stone

Ma 马Another common Chinese surname, means horse

Xu   徐 Common Chinese surname. I always get it mixed up with 许.

Shi Xianggu   石香姑 Zheng Yi Sao's real name

Xinhui   新会 City near Jiangmen

Tanka or Danjia   疍家 The boat dwelling people of south China and Fujian

shuishang ren 水上人 people who live on the water

Zheng Yi   郑一 South Seas pirate who ran the Red Flag Fleet. Married Shi Xianggu

Red Flag Fleet  红旗帮 Hóngqí Bāng.

Cheung Po Tsai  张保仔 Zhang Bâozâi

Jing Hai fen ji  靖海氛记 Charles F. Neumann's "The Pirates who Infested the China Sea from 1807 to 1810.

Jiaqing emperor   嘉庆帝 Qing emperor 1796 - 1820

Daoguang emperor   道光帝 Qing emperor 1820 - 1850

Ming Jiajing Emperor   明嘉靖帝 Ming emperor 1521 - 1567

Lantau 大屿山 Island that is part of the Hong Kong SAR

Cheung Chau  - Changzhou 长洲 Island off the coast of Lantau

Humen  虎门 Located at the mouth of the Pearl River Delta

Chow Yun-fat  周润发 Great Actor who played Sau Feng, one of the Pirate Lords from Disney's P of the C movie Part 3.

Qiongzhou Strait 琼州海峡 Body of water that separates Hainan from Guangdong

 

 

CHP-173- The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 3  

Laszlo offers up the exciting conclusion to the 3-part series introducing the Tong Wars.  

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

Wanguo Jinyanhui huizhi 万国禁烟会会址 Meeting place of the International Opium Commission

weiji   危机   A crisis

Charlie Boston 李观长 One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Tom Lee  李希龄  Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

Xinhai Revolution   辛亥革命   The event that toppled the Qing Dynasty in 1911.

Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. Directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence.

Chong Pon Sing   The president of the Hip Sings, bumped off by the On Leongs

Yee Toy 余才 A Hip Sing soldier involved in a few of their most daring hits

Gin Gum   Another high ranking On Leong and later right hand man to Tom Lee

Kim Lan Association   金兰公所 A part of the Chee Kung Tong (Hongmen) made up of mostly Hip Sings

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations

Fong Foo Leung   the Hip Sing national president

Chin Jack Lem   An On Leong whose defection to the Hip Sings sparked a Tong War

zhi baobuzhu huo   纸包不住火 An old Chinese saying that says "paper can't wrap a fire"

Zhongguo Huiguan 中国会馆 The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association...

Lee Gee Min  Officer for the On Leong’s

Wong Get 黄傑 A Hip Sing everyman...Used by reforming politicians to rat out the On Leongs and by his fellow Hip Sing tong brothers to make things difficult for the On Leongs.

Frank Moy   head of the Chicago branch of the On Leong’s

Tung On Society 东安会馆 Another society made up mostly of seamen

Jiu Yi Ba  九一八 the Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931.

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

 

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

 

The Tong Wars book home page

 

Article from Signature Magazine that explains the Turf Wars in NY Chinatown .

 

 

 

 

 

CHP-172-The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 2  

In this Part 2 episode the Tong Wars begin in earnest.  The first and second Tong Wars are discussed.  

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

The Tong Wars book home page

Article from Signature Magazine that explains the Turf Wars in NY Chinatown

 

"Wish Lanterns - Young Lives in New China"

Alec Ash - UK Amazon link to Wish Lanterns

 

21st Century China Program - UC San Diego

Link to their Website

Link to the China 21 Podcast

 

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Lung Kin was a Hip Sing member who was the first to get shot in the First Tong War

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

Gong Wing Chung The On Leong soldier charged with Lung Kin's murder

Sin Cue An On Leong, first a suspect in a 1900 murder and later a victim of a Hip Sing hit to prevent him from testifying against Mock Duck

Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. Directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence.

Tom Lee  李希龄  Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Sue Sing   a Hip Sing charged with the murder of Ah Fee, got sentenced to life in the Sing Sing Correctional Facility

Lee Sing An On Leong highbinder from Dedham, Massachusetts. Tried to bump off Mock Duck in 1904.

Zhongguo Huiguan 中国会馆 The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association

Charlie Boston 李观长 One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Chu Gong 赵昂 High ranking On Leong officer

Gin Gum   Another high ranking On Leong and later right hand man to Tom Lee

Hop Lee A Hip Sing laundryman brutally killed by the On Leongs in a retaliation murder.

Shah Kai-fu 夏偕复The Chinese Consul based in the US.

mo mentai, mo mentai 没问题,没问题 Cantonese for no problem, no problem

boo-how-doy / futou zai 斧头仔 Term was used to describe hatchet men contracted from out of town. Also another name for a highbinder.

Leon Ling Charged with the murder of Bow Kum but escaped and was never found.

Chu Gain Proprietor of The Port Arthur Restaurant who was carrying on with Bow Kum at the time of her murder.

Lung Kong Tin Yee Gong Shaw / Longgang Qinyi Gongsuo 龙岗亲义公所Early name of the Four Brothers Society

See Sing Tong / The Sixing Tang 四姓堂 The Four Surnames Society

Sixing 四姓Four surnames.

Lau / Liu 刘 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Kwan / Guan 关 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Cheung / Zhang 张 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Chu / Zhao 赵 One of the four clan names of the Four Brothers Society

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations


Bow Kum 包金(?) A China-born consort whose murder in 1909 sparked the Second Tong War between the On Leongs and the Four Brothers Society. 

Lau Tong Four Brothers member charged with the murder of Bow Kum

Lau Shong Four Brothers member charged with the murder of Bow Kum

Gun Kee Four Brothers member shot and wounded in front of On Leong headquarters by a cousin of Tom Lee.


Ah Hoon   An On Leong who was also a Four Brothers member. A well known comedian in his day. Shot and killed in 1909. 

fan tan 番摊 The game of games for Chinatown gamblers...a game of skill and guessing. Also called Chinese Roulette.

pi-gow 牌九 A Chinese domino-based game of chance

CHP-171-The Tong Wars of New York Chinatown Part 1  

In this long awaited and oft requested episode Laszlo explains about the Tong Wars of New York's Chinatown. With the help of Scott Seligman's latest book we go back to late 19th - early 20th century America and focus on New York's Chinatown.  These were terribly unpleasant days for most citizens of Chinese ancestry and especially for those immigrants who either had not begun the process or lived in the shadows illegally. The Chinese Exclusion Laws tarred these citizens like no other immigrant group in US history. The Tong Wars didn't happen because of these laws but they were certainly part of the story.  With everything Chinese-Americans have done to make America great over the past century it's interesting to look back at another time when the ordinary law abiding Chinese and the bloodiest tong soldier were equally reviled in society that was loath to accept them. The book is called "Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown" by Scott D. Seligman.

Terms from this Episode

Qing Chao monian 清朝末年The last years of the Qing Dynasty

Mao Zedong 毛泽东   Chairman Mao

Shaoshan 韶山   Birthplace of Chairman Mao, in Hunan

Toisan   台山 City in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Hoiping   开平 Another city in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Sun-wui   新会 Another city in the Pearl River Delta where many early Chinese immigrants came from.

Wong Chin Foo   王清福 First to use the term Chinese American. His life was featured in CHP episode 136.

Wo Kee Early Chinatown Merchant also known as Wong Ah Chung

Wong Ah Chung Real name (maybe) of the "pre-Tom Lee" Chinatown personality known as Wo Kee

Wung Ah Ling 李希龄 (Tom Lee) Chinatown elder credited with the formation of the On Leong Tong and other NY Chinatown organizations

Loon Yee Tong 联谊堂 Cantonese for the Lianyi Tang a.k.a. Chee Kung Tong (致公堂) Society that went back to the Qing dynasty///also known as The Chinese Masons and The Hongmen

Lianyi Tang   联谊堂 Mandarin pronunciation of the Loon Yee Tong

Hongmen   洪门 A secret society formed in China during the Qing who pined to restore the good old days under the Chinese Ming dynasty (as opposed to despised Manchu Qing). It later inspired other similar secret societies and fraternal organizations

Lee Sing 利胜 Chinatown merchant on Pell who publicly assaulted Tom Lee and got away with it

fan tan 番摊 The game of games for Chinatown gamblers...a game of skill and guessing. Also called Chinese Roulette.

pi-gow 牌九 A Chinese domino-based game of chance

On Leong Tong   安良堂 The Tong led by Tom Lee

An Liang Tang   安良堂 Mandarin pronunciation of the On Leong Tong

Hip Sing Tong   协勝堂 The rival of the On Leongs, led by (but not established by) Mock Duck.

Xie Sheng Tang   协勝堂 Hip Sing in Mandarin

Lee Toy   李彩 Tom Lee's nephew and chief tough guy in the On Leongs

Lee Quon Jung 李观长 a.k.a. Charlie Boston One of the top guys in the On Leongs

Yuet Sing Another wealthy On Leong merchant in Chinatown 

Wong Get 黄傑 A Hip Sing everyman...Used by reforming politicians to rat out the On Leongs and by his fellow Hip Sing tong brothers to make things difficult for the On Leongs.

Mai De a.k.a. Mock Duck   麦德 Top guy (but not the founder) of the Hip Sing Tong. A slippery as an eel and hard to pin down by the authorities...directed and took part in a lot of Chinatown violence

Lung Kin was a Hip Sing member who was the first to get shot in the First Tong War

 

"Tong Wars, The Untold Story of Vice, Money and Murder in New York's Chinatown"

Scott Seligman's Amazon Page

 

The Tong Wars book home page

 

"Wish Lanterns - Young Lives in New China"

Alec Ash - UK Amazon link to Wish Lanterns

 

supchina.com - New Home of the great Sinica Podcast and a wonderful place to stay in daily touch with what's up in China.

 

CHP-170-The Mongol Yuan Dynasty Part 2  

Laszlo finishes up the story of the Yuan Dynasty, founded in 1271.  The parts of China not yet conquered were done in by 1276 and the last holdouts gone by 1279.  But the Great Yuan didn't last long.  This episode takes a nice little overview of the dynasty, its slow demise and the legacy they left.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty

Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan

Golden Horde  金帐汗国   Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.

Arigh Böke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai

Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan

Zhao   赵   The surname of the Song dynasty ruling family

Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire

Zhengding   正定 A place adjacent to Shijiazhuang, site of Kublai Khan's mother's appanage.

Shijiazhuang   石家庄 Capital of Hebei Province

Hebei   河北 Province in northern China

Zhongtong Era   中统 Era during the Yuan 1260-1264

Zhiyuan Era 至元 Era during the Yuan 1264-1294

Jin Dynasty  金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda

Haiyun Chan Shi 海运禅师 Buddhist advisor to Kublai Khan

Liu Bingzhong   刘秉忠 Advisor to Kublai Khan on all matters architectural, feng shui and other things

Khitans   契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125

Kaiping 开平 Original name of Shangdu

Shangdu   上都 Known popularly as Xanadu, later became Kublai's summer palace

Chengde   承德 Better known in old history books as Jehol or Rehe, city northwest of Beijing

Hülegü 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui

Dadu  大都 Kublai Khan capital, also known as Khanbaliq, City of the Khan's, located in present day Beijing

Zhu Yuanzhang   朱元璋 Ming Dynasty founder

Karakorum  喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260, originally built by Ogedai Khan

Shandong   山东 Coastal province in the north, famous for a million things including Confucius

Li Tan 李璮 Loyal Yuan official up in Shandong who later led a rebellion against Mongol rule in China.

Shi Tianze   石天泽 One of Kublai Khan's most loyal and successful Han Chinese generals

Duke of Zhou   周公 Son of the Zhou Dynasty founder King Wen, brother to King Wu

Taizong   太宗 Co-founder of the Tang Dynasty, also known as Li Shimin

Han Wudi   汉武帝 Great conquering Han Dynasty emperor

Liu Bei   刘备 Mighty hero during the Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period. Founder of the Shu Han State.

Lantau Island   大屿山 Hong Kong's largest island, the international airport is located there

Zhao Kuangyin   赵匡胤 Song dynasty founder

Lizong   理宗   Southern Song emperor 1224-1264 Not a terribly good one.

Emperor Yang of the Sui   隋炀帝 Son of Sui Dynasty founder and final emperor of the Sui. Did some good and some bad. Had a lot of concubines

Empress Dowager Xie

Duzong emperor 度宗 Southern Song emperor from 1264 to 1274

Jia Sidao   贾似道 Southern Song chancellor

Aju  阿术 General and high ranking official during the Yuan. Grandson of Subotei

Subotei  速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.

Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.

Bayan of the Baarin 伯颜   Kublai's greatest general

Han Jiang   汉江 Tributary of the Yangzi flows from Shaanxi to Hubei

Hanshui   汉水 Another name for the Han JIang

Hubei ren   湖北人 Someone from Hubei

Wuchang   武昌 The city that makes up the Wu in Wuhan

Hankou   汉口 The city that makes the Han in Wuhan

Hanyang   汉阳 The third city of the Wuhan metropolitan area

Nanjing   南京 Ming Dynasty capital, also known as the ancient city of Jiankang

Jiankang   建康 Ancient name for Nanjing

Qiantang River   钱塘江   the southern terminus of the Grand Canal, flowed through Hangzhou

Xiangyang   襄阳 City in Hubei opposite the Han Shui from Fancheng

Fancheng  樊城   City in Hubei opposite the Han Shui from Xiangyang

Xiangfan   襄樊 The twin cities of Xiangyang and Fancheng

Hui Hui Pao   回回炮 "Muslim trebuchet"

Cai Jing   蔡京 Huizong's main official, great calligrapher, not terribly popular in his last years

Emperor Gong  恭帝  Southern Song emperor from 1274 to 1276

Changzhou   常州   City in Jiangsu who felt the wrath of the Khan

Huizong 徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song

Duanzong 端宗   Second to the last Southern Song emperor, died age 8

Lu Xiufu   陆秀夫   Official and Military man who served the Song dynasty till the last

Zhao Bing   赵昺   Last emperor of the Southern Song, also known as Huaizong

Huaizong   怀宗   Last Song emperor, also known as Zhao Bing

Hubilie 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.

Yunnan   云南   Southwestern province in China

Empress Chabi 察必皇后   favorite wife of Kublai Khan

Zhenjin   真金   Son of Kublai Khan, died before he succeeded his father as emperor

Shizu   世祖   Posthumous temple name of Kublai Khan

Temür Khan 完泽笃汗 Son of Zhenjin, later became the Chengzong emperor

Chengzong emperor   成宗   Succeeded Kublai Khan as Yuan Emperor

Külüg Khan  曲律汗 Also known as the Wuzong emperor

Wuzong emperor  武宗   Yuan emperor 1307-1311

Buyantu Khan   普颜笃汗 Also known as the Renzong Emperor

Renzong emperor 仁宗 Yuan Emperor 1311-1320, champion of Confucianists.

Zhu Xi   朱熹 Great Chinese philosopher, father of Neo-Confucianism

Si Shu 四书 the Four Books

The Lunyu   论语 The Analects

Mengzi   孟子 The Mencius

Daxue   大学 The Great Learning

Zhongyong  中庸 The Doctrine of the Mean

I Ching   易经 The Book of Changes. People swear by it.

Yingzong emperor   英宗   Yuan Dynasty emperor 1320-1323

Temuder   铁木迭儿 Yuan grand councillar during Yingzong

Taiding Emperor 泰定帝 Yuan emperor 1323-1328

Liangdu zhi zhan   两都之战   War of the Two Capitals

Toghon Temür 妥懽帖睦尔Mongolian name of Yuan emperor Shun

Emperor Shun   顺帝 Yuan emperor

Shun  舜  Last of the mythical Five Emperors, lived around 2200 BC

Yu the Great   大禹 Founder of the Xia Dynasty

Poyang Hu zhizhan   鄱阳湖之战 the Battle of Poyang Lake

Hongwu Emperor   洪武帝 Era name chosen by Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming dynasty

Liu Bang   刘邦 A.K.A. Han Gaozu, founder of the Han Dynasty

Longquan   龙泉 Ancient site near Lishui where some of the best porcelain ware in China was fired.

Lishui   丽水 City in southern Zhejiang

Jingdezhen   景德镇   The historic porcelain capital of China.

Zheng He   郑和 The Yongle Emperor's loyal admiral who led seven voyages to the west that went as far as the east coast of Africa

Wu Cheng 吴澄   Great Yuan dynasty scholar-official and student of Zhu Xi's philosophy

Guo Shoujing 郭守敬   Great Yuan dynasty scholar, scientist, engineer. The "Tycho Brahe of China"

Zhao Mengfu   赵孟頫   Great Yuan era painter, descended from the Song royal family, married to Guan Daosheng.  

Guan Daosheng   管道昇   Called "China's greatest female painter". Married to Zhao Mengfu...an amazing couple in their day

Liu Guandao   刘贯道   Another great Yuan dynasty painter

  

Alec Ash's new book: Wish Lanterns: Young Lives in New China

 

Barbarians at the Gate Podcast: Get it H E R E at Jeremiah's Granite Studio page.

 

David Moser's "A Billion Voices: China's Search for a Common Language"

 

And check out Sixth Tone at http://www.sixthtone.com/

 

CHP-169-The Mongol Yuan Dynasty Part 1  

In this long overdue episode with a deceiving title we don't actually get around to the Yuan Dynasty.  However a nice handy and confusing overview tracing the rise of the Mongol nation is presented which includes a bio on Genghis Khan.  We'll get to rise of Kublai Khan this time and look at the Yuan Dynasty next episode.  

 

Terms from this Episode

numero ciento sesenta y nueve Number 169

Qin Shihuang 秦始皇 Qin Dynasty founder

Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty

Parthians 帕提亚  Iranian nomadic people

Scythians   斯基泰人 Iranian nomadic people

Yuezhi 月氏 Originally from Xinjiang and Gansu, defeated by the Xiongnu

Goths 哥特 West central Asian power, the scourge of the Roman Empire

Magyars   马扎儿人 West central Asian power. Today they are known as Hungarians.

Huns 匈奴 More from the western part of the steppe, often confused with Xiongnu

Xiongnu 匈奴 Often called Huns, they were an early northern tribe who kept invading China

Slavs   斯拉夫人 People from central Europe and the West Asian steppe

Xianbei 鲜卑   So-called "proto-Mongols" who lived around the Qin and Han dynasties and founded the Northern Wei.

Shatuo Turks  沙陀突厥  Power in north China late 9th and 10th century. Founded several short-lived dynasties in the north of China.

Khitans 契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125

Tatars 鞑靼人 Mongol tribe defeated by Genghis Khan who later moved westward towards Russia and Europe

Kazakhs   哈萨克人 North-Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

Kyrgyz  吉尔吉斯  Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kyrgyzstan

Uighurs   维吾尔人   Turkic people who today mostly live in Xinjiang

The Hakkas 客家人 The Hakka People

Fujian 福建   Province on the east coast of China

Huizong   徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song

Aguda 阿骨打 Also known as Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jin Dynasty

Wuqimai 吴乞买 Aguda's brother, second emperor of the Jin

Kaifeng 开封 Capital of the Northern Song Dynasty

Jin Dynasty  金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda

Zhao Gou   赵构 Escaped Zhao royal family member, launched Southern Song

Gaozong 高宗 First emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty

Lin'an 临安 Southern Song capital, present day Hangzhou

Merkits  蔑儿乞人 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Keraits  怯烈亦 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongüts  汪古部 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongirats  One of many tribes of the Mongols

Naimans 乃蛮 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Temüjin 铁木真 Genghis Khan's name

Dobun Known as Dobun the Clever, married to Alan the Fair, early ancestors of Temujin

Ah-Lan the Fair married to Dobun, early ancestors of Temujin

Khaidu 海都 c. 1040-1100 Great-grandfather of Khabul Khan

Khabul Khan  合不勒  Early great khan and great -grandfather of Genghis Khan

Yesugei the Brave 孛儿只斤Ÿ也速该 Father of Genghis Khan

Yuanchao Mi Shi 元朝秘史 The Secret History of the Mongols

Börte 孛儿帖 Wife of Temüjin and later Grand Empress of the Mongol Empire

Ulaan Bator 乌兰巴托 Capital of Mongolia

Jochi 术赤 Oldest son of Börte and maybe Genghis Khan

Golden Horde 金帐汗国  Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.

Xinjiang   新疆 Northwest autonomous region in China

Mongol Yasa (Jasagh)   A Mongol Codified law introduced by Genghis Khan

Khuriltai 忽里勒台   A Mongol congress of all elders and leaders

Kara Khitai 喀喇契丹 Also known as the Western Liao 1124-1218

Xixia  西夏 The Western Xia, an empire established by the Tanguts

Khwarizmian Empire 花剌子模王国 Lasted 1077-1231. Khwarazmia covered All of Iran and parts of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan.

Batu 拔都 Founder of Golden Horde, son of Jochi, grandson of Genghis Khan

Chaghadai 蔡合台 Second son of Genghis Khan, founder of Khanate of Chaghadai

Khanate of Chaghadai 蔡合台汗国 Covered most of Central Asia

Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire

Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan

Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan

Kublai 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.

Hulagu 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui

Arigh Boke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai

Subotei 速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.

Dzungaria 准噶尔 Northern half of Xinjiang with Tianshan Mountains south and the Altai north.

Karakorum 喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260

Guyuk 贵由 Eldest son of Ogedai Khan, reigned only two years as the 3rd Great Khan

Mamluks 马木留克 Originally slave soldiers, they were a powerful "caste" of warriors who operated from the 9th to 19th centuries. Not to be messed with.

Il-khanate 伊儿汗国  The southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire. Ruled by Hülagü's branch of the family - centered around Iran

Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.

Owen Lattimore 欧文Ÿ拉铁摩尔 American scholar and Central Asian specialist

 

Isaac Meyer:  “History of Japan Podcast”

https://historyofjapan.wordpress.com/

 

Nina Xiang: "China Money Network"

http://www.chinamoneynetwork.com/

 

CHP-168-Zhou Enlai Part 8  

In this bonus one hour plus episode we look at the last six years of Zhou Enlai's life. It was a bittersweet end for Premier Zhou.  In between doing great things for China and guiding the country's general well-being he was forced to play a central role in some of the worst internecine politics in CCP history.  

Terms from this episode

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao's adopted daughter

Jiang Qing   江青   Wife of Mao Zedong, Gang of Fouyr leader

Lin Biao   林彪   Revolutionary hero, great general, Mao chosen successor

Chen Yi   陈毅   Another great military leader, later foreign minister

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   State Chairman (title changed to president in 1982), main target of Cultural Revolution

Chen Boda   陈伯达 Former secretary, speechwriter to Mao

Zhang Chunqiao   张春桥 Political theoretician, later member of the Gang of Four

Yao Wenyuan   姚文元 Prominent writer, critic...wrote the initial critique of Wu Han's play that kicked off the Cultural Revolution

Lushan   庐山 Scenic spot in northern Jiangxi, site of many historic meetings

Poyang Lake   鄱阳湖   China's largest freshwater lake

Jiangxi Province   江西 Province in eastern China

Xian Incident   西安事变   October 12, 1936 kidnapping of Chiang Kai-shek

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great military leader, destroyed by Mao at Lushan in 1959 due to criticism of the Great Leap Forward

Zhuang Zedong   庄则栋   One of China's greatest table tennis champions

Wu Faxian   吴法宪   Former Air Force commander, staunch Lin Biao supporter

Ye Qun   叶群 Wife of Lin Biao

Lin Liguo   林立果   Son of Lin Biao, main planner of the attempted coup of Lin Biao

Beidaihe   北戴河   Beach resort near Qinhuangdao, Hebei province, popularly used as a Party retreat for informal meetings

Shanhaiguan   山海关 Historic district near to Beidaihe and Qinhuangdao

"Tian yao xia yu, niang yao jia ren, wufa keshe, you ta qu ba!"   天要下雨,娘要嫁人,无法可设,由他去吧   the heavens must rain and a woman wants to be wed....nothing can be done about this....let him go."

Zunyi Conference   遵义会议 Historic CCP conference in January 1935 in which Mao and Bo Gu fought for supremacy

Zhongnanhai   中南海   Government leadership compound adjacent to the Forbidden City

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超 Wife of Zhou Enlai, later chairperson of the CPPCC

Wumao's   五毛党   People in the Party's employ responsible for flooding the internet with pro-Party comments in an effort to sway public opinion.

Wang Hairong   王海容 Mao's grand niece and later vice minister of the Foreign Ministry

Nancy Tang Wensheng   唐文生 Mao's English interpreter

Wang Hongwen   王洪文 Young, unknown Shanghai radical hand picked by Mao to be his successor

Xinjian County Tractor Factory   新建县拖拉机厂 Factory outside Nanchang where Deng Xiaoping was sent to work after his first political purge ion 1969

Nanchang   南昌 Capital of Jiangxi province

Pi Lin Pi Kong   批林批孔运动 The Criticize Lin Biao, Criticize Confucius Campaign

Ye Jianying   叶剑英 Great PLA general, great leader, rose to the occasion at several key moments in China history

Luo Ruiqing   罗瑞卿   Popular general, early victim of the Cultural Revolution

Mao Yuanxin   毛远新   Mao's nephew, son of his younger brother Mao Zemin

Sige Xiandaihua   四个现代化   The Four Modernizations

Hua Guofeng   华国锋 named as acting Premier to replace Zhou, later Party Chairman

Zhu De   朱德 PLA founder, great general and comrade of Mao

Tangshan   唐山   City in Hebei, just east of Beijing, epicenter of the great earthquake of 1976

Li Xiannian   李先念   Great military and political leader, later President of Chian 1983-88

Wang Dongxing   汪东兴 Mao's bodyguard during the Cultural Revolution years. Commander of the 8341 Special Regiment

Gaige kaifang   改革开放 The policy of reform and opening up to the outside world.

CHP-167-Zhou Enlai Part 7  

In this longer than expected seventh episode of the series the Cultural Revolution gets underway, something that Zhou will have to deal with until his dying day.  Aside from this, China's illustrious premier also has his hands full with a thousand other responsibilities, both foreign and domestic. 

 

Terms from this Episode:

Zhou Enlai   周恩来   China's beloved premier and statesman

Huai'an 淮安 City in Jiangsu Province, birthplace of Zhou Enlai

Jiangsu   江苏   Rich coastal province in China

Nankai Middle School 天津南开中学   Famed school where Zhou attended

Tianjin   天津   Municipality just east of Beijing

Whampoa Military Academy   中华民国陆军军官学校   Military academy located in Guangzhou

Jinggangshan   井冈山 Soviet base set up by Mao in the mountains of Jiangxi

Zhu De   朱德   PLA founder and legendary general

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   Great Chinese leader, persecuted by Mao during Cultural Revolution

Deng Xiaoping   邓小平 China's supreme leader in the 1980's

Yang Shangkun   杨尚昆   Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Peng Zhen   彭真 Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great military hero of the PRC, former defense minister

Guiyang   贵阳   Capital of Guizhou Province

Guizhou   贵州   Interior province of China

Hebei   河北 Province in northern China

geming lao qu   革命老区 Revolutionary areas loyal to the CCP going back to the 2nd Sino-Japanese War

Boyan   伯延 A town near Wu'an (武安) in southern Hebei

Zhou Enlai de Sige Zhouye   周恩来的四个昼夜 Movie called "The Story of Zhou Enlai"

Wang Tiecheng   王铁成   Chinese actor famous for his portrayals of Zhou Enlai

Liu Bocheng   刘伯承   Great PLA general who worked closely with Deng Xiaoping

cunmin   村民   village people

Gu Mu   谷牧 1914-2009, great revolutionary, politician, vice-premier

Lin Biao   林彪 Great military hero of the PRC, former defense minister, later rabble rouser

Xinjiang 新疆   Autonomous region in China's northwest

lao gege   老哥哥   Old buddy

Deng Jiaxian 邓稼先   The father of China's nuclear program. Great nuclear physicist

Li Siguang   李四光 Great Chinese scientist, father of China's geomechanics program

Qian Sanqiang   钱三强 Great nuclear physicist

Zhongnanhai   中南海   China's top leadership compound adjacent to the Forbidden City

Luóbùpō  罗布破 Lop Nor in Xinjiang province

He Long   贺龙 Great PLA general

Ngo Dinh Diem 吴廷琰 President of South Vietnam 1955-1963

Yunnan   云南   Province in southwest China

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great Chinese leader, general, statesman, football fanatic

Sanxian jianshe   三线建设 The Third Front Movement

Qinghai   青海   Province in western China

Ningxia   宁夏   Autonomous region in the north of China

Sichuan   四川   Province in China also known as Szechwan

Gansu   甘肃    Province in western China

Chen Yun   陈云 Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Bo Yibo   薄一波   Chinese leader and one of the Eight Immortals

Li Fuchun   李富春 Leader and statesman in China, handled the planning of China's economy.

chi chuan yong   吃穿用 "Eat, Wear, Use"

biyaopin   必要品 Necessities of Life

riyongpin   日用品   Daily use items

Dongfang Hong   东方红   The East is Red

Jiang Qing   江青   Mao's last wife, among many other things, all negative.

Wu Han   吴晗   Ming dynasty expert, Beijing vice-mayor

Yao Wenyuan   姚文元   One of the Gang of Four

Wenhui Bao   文汇报   The Wenhui Bao, a Shanghai newspaper

Wuhan   武汉   City in Hubei on the Yangzi consisting of the cities of Hankou, Wuchang and Hanyang

Hangzhou   杭州   Capital of Zhejiang province

Zhong Fa   中发   A Central Directive, like an executive order

Luo Ruiqing  罗瑞卿   PLA great and later target of the Cultural Revolution

Ye Qun   叶群   PLA colonel and wife of Lin Biao

Xiao Xiangrong   肖向荣 Whampoa Military Academy grad, old revolutionary, Luo Ruiqing ally.

Yangzi   扬子江   The Yangtse River

Pao da siling bu   炮打司令部   Bombard the headquarters (Mao's first Big character poster)

Tan Zhenlin   谭震林 Another PLA great

Xu Xiangqian   徐向前 Another PLA great

Wang Guangmei   王光美   Wife of Liu Shaoqi

Song Qingling   宋庆龄   Wife of Sun Yat-sen, later a stateswoman of the PRC

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Adopted daughter of Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao

Sun Bingwen   孙炳文   Early CCP martyr, father of Sun Weishi

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超   Wife of Zhou Enlai, among many other things

You Tube link to The Zhou Enlai Story movie

CHP-166-Zhou Enlai Part 6  

More Zhou Enlai again. This time we look at the second half of the 1950's. Zhou was as busy as ever, setting up the government, handling foreign relations and dealing with Chairman Mao. This episode will see Zhou during the Gao Gang Affair, Hundred Flowers, Anti-Rightist, San Fan and Wu Fan Campaigns, Land Reform, rapid agricultural collectivization and the disastrous Great Leap Forward.

Terms from this episode

Gao Gang 高岗 Senior CCP leader who fell victim of the first high-level purge in PRC history

Shaanxi 陕西   Ancient province where Xian is the capital. Next door to Shanxi

Yan'an   延安   Revolutionary CCP base from 1935-1947

Wang Ming   王明 29 Bolsheviks leader who challenged Mao and lost

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀 Legendary PLA leader and old comrade of Mao

Chen Yun   陈云   Old revolutionary chiefly in charge of China's economy

Li Fuchun   李富春   Old comrade of Zhou's from Paris, great revolutionary, Vice premier

Lushunkou   旅顺口 Port Arthur in Liaoning Province

Liaoning   辽宁 One of the three provinces of Manchuria

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   Party legend and sometimes rival of Chairman Mao

Hangzhou   杭州 City in Zhejiang, former capital of the Southern Song

Zhang Zuolin   张作霖   Warlord of Manchuria in the 1920's

Rao Shushi   饶漱石 Gao Gang accomplice in the Gao Gang Affair

Gao Rao Fan Dang Lianmeng 高饶反党联盟 The Gao-Rao Anti-Party Alliance

San Fan Campaign   三反运动 The 3 Anti's Campaign

Wu Fan Campaign   五反运动 The 5 Anti's Campaign

Tanwu he langfei shi jidade fanzui 贪污和浪费是极大的犯罪     Corruption and Waste were the biggest crimes

zhishifenzi   知识分子   Intellectuals

zibenzhuyizhe   资本主义者   Capitalists

Zhongguo Minhang   中国民航   CAAC The old China national airline before it was broken up

Chen Yi   陈毅   PLA legend, soccer fanatic, close comrade of Mao's and later Shanghai mayor and China foreign minister (after Zhou stepped down)

jus sanguinis This is a Latin word meaning "right of blood"

Zhongnanhai   中南海   Compound adjascent to the Forbidden City where China's leaders reside.

Bo Yibo   薄一波   Old revolutionary from Shanxi in charge of finance and the economy with Chen Yun

Li Xiannian   李先念 CCP legend who played a major role in the 80's with Deng Xiaoping

zili gengsheng   自力更生   Self-reliance

Ren duo hao ban shi   人多好办事   When you have a lot of people, things are easy to do

Nanning   南宁   Capital city in Guangxi province

Chengdu    成都 Capital city in Sichuan

Lushan    庐山   Sacred mountain and site of a famous resort in Jiangxi province

 

CHP-165-Zhou Enlai Part 5  

Laszlo returns after one of the longest breaks ever in the history of the CHP.  Part 5 this time.  The PRC is founded and Premier/ForeignMinister Zhou Enlai has his work cut out for him.  In this episode the focus is on the Korean War and the Geneva Conference. Zhou already enjoyed some degree of international respect from those he had come to know during his Shanghai and Chongqing years.  By 1954 he had established himself as a respected tour de force on the world stage and earned begrudging admiration from those who refused to recognize the country for which he was head of state.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超   Wife of Zhou Enlai and CPPCC Chairwoman 1983-1988

Zhongnanhai   中南海 Compound adjacent to the Forbidden City that houses the top Party leadership

Juxiang Shuwu 菊香书屋 Zhou's first dwelling in Zhongnanhai and later taken over by Mao as his primary office and residence.

Yingtai 瀛台   Island located in the center of South Lake...later the residence of Deng Xiaoping

Empress Dowager Cixi 慈禧太后 Top decision maker in China from 1861 to 1908

Guangxu Emperor   光绪帝 Qing emperor who began the Hundred Days of Reform and got locked up by the Empress Dowager for his troubles.

Xihuating   西花厅   Zhou's residence after Mao took over the Juxiang Shuwu.

Prince Chun 醇亲王 Qing dynasty statesman and father to the Guangxu Emperor and grandfather to Puyi...

Puyi   溥仪 The Xuantong Emperor, a.k.a. The Last Emperor

Chongqing   重庆 Wartime capital of China during WWII

Zhou Enshou   周恩寿 Younger brother of Zhou Enlai

didi   弟弟 younger brother

butie   补贴 a subsidy

Sun Weishi   孙维世 Adopted daughter of Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao

Li Peng   李鹏 Adopted sin of Zhou and Deng Yingchao and Premier of China1987-1998

Huai'an 淮安 Birthplace of Zhou Enlai

Jiangsu   江苏 Province where Huai-an was located.

Guowuyuan   国务院 The State Council

Zhengwuyuan   政务院 Former name of the State Council

Chen Yi   陈毅   Immortal military leader, foreign minister and hardcore soccer fan

Wenhui Bao   文汇报 The Wenhui Daily, a Shanghai newspaper

Pu Shouchang   浦寿昌   Served as Zhou Enlai's secretary from 1954-1965

Zongli Yamen   总理衙门 The old Qing dynasty foreign ministry

Wang Jiaxiang   王稼祥 Vice foreign minister

Li Kenong   李克农   Vice foreign minister

Zhang Hanfu   章汉夫   Vice foreign minister

Wang Bingnan   王炳南 Key foreign ministry leader

Qiao Guanhua   乔冠华   Key foreign ministry leader

Chen Jiakang   陈嘉康   Key foreign ministry leader

Ke Bainian   柯柏年   Key foreign ministry leader

Gong Peng   龚澎   Key foreign ministry leader

Huang Hua   黄华   Key foreign ministry leader

Lüshun   旅顺口 Located in the tip of the Liaodong peninsula, formerly known as Port Arthur

Dalian   大连 Port city in Liaoning province

xijie   细节 details

Lin Biao   林彪 Marshal and military hero until he tried to overthrow Mao in 1971

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀 Great military leader and later victim of the Great Leap Forward

Yalu River   鸭绿江 The river dividing North Korea and China.

Zhongguo Renmin Zhìyuànjūn 中国人民志愿军 The China People's Volunteer Army

Léi Yīngfū the Luòyáng Cáizǐ  雷应付, 洛阳才子 Assisted Kimn Il Sung during the Korean War. Mao called him later the Literary Genius from Luoyang

Lǐ Chéngwǎn李承晚 1st president of South Korea Syngman Rhee

Guoqing   国庆 National Day

Zhongguo laobaixing   中国老百姓 The Chinese People

Kàng Mei Yúan Cháo Zhànzhēng   抗美援朝战争 The resist America and defend Korea War (What China calls The Korean War).

Kàng Mei Yúan Cháo   抗美援朝 resist America and defend Korea.

Zhong Mei Guanxi   中美关系  China-US Relations

Yang Kaihui   杨开慧 Mao's 1st wife (if you don't include the arranged marriage he never recognized)

Mao Anying   毛岸英 Son of Mao Zedong and Yang Kaihui

shi   市 a City

zhen   镇 a Town

cun   村 a Village

Vo Nguyên Giáp   武元甲 Great military hero of Vietnam

Wéi Guóqīng   韦国清

Dien Bien Phu   奠边府 City in Vietnam where the French were defeated in 1954

Pham Van Dong   范文同   Former prime minister of Vietnam

Liuzhou, Guangxi   广西柳州 Major city in Guangxi province

Huan Xiang   宦乡   Journalist and diplomat

Bandung   万隆 City in Indonesia, site of a famous conference

Gao Gang   高岗  Heavyweight in northeast China and later victim of the first purge after the PRC was established.

San Fan   三反运动 The Three Anti Campaign launched end 1951

Wu Fan   五反运动 The Five Anti Campaign launched in early 1952

CHP-164-Zhou Enlai Part 4  

In this Part 4 episode of the CHP Zhou Enlai series Laszlo re-tells the always amusing story of when the Americans came around Yan'an to kick the tires of the CCP and see what they were all about. Many of these events from today's episode were covered in previous podcasts (Kang Sheng, Deng Xiaoping, John Service and Civil War). This time Zhou again proves his loyalty and devotion to Mao and as always to China. He gets a real workout as far as developing his role as the Communists (and later China's) chief diplomat.

TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE

Yan'an   延安   Revolutionary base of the CCP after the Long March

Kang Sheng   康生   康生 Early CCP secret police chief and later "godfather" of the Cultural Revolution

Shaanxi   陕西 Province in northwest China

Zunyi   遵义 2nd largest city in Guizhou

Zhang Guotao   张国焘 Senior Communist leader and rival to Mao

Bo Gu   博古 One of the 28 Bolsheviks and right hand to Wang Ming

Wang Ming   王明   Comintern appointed CCP leader and head of the 28 Bolsheviks

Zhu De   朱德 Founder of the Red Army

Liu Shaoqi   刘少奇   Early Mao supporter and later top leader in China

Bo Yibo 薄一波 Early Mao supporter, featured in an earlier CHP episode

Peng Zhen   彭真 Early Mao supporter and later mayor of Beijing

Chen Yi   陈毅   Great general, Shanghai mayor, Foreign Minister

zhishi fenzi   知识分子 intellectuals

He Zizhen   贺子珍 Mao's third wife (after Luo Yixiu and Yang Kaihui)

Lan Ping   蓝萍 Stage name of Jiang Qing

Li Shumeng   李淑蒙 Early name of Jiang Qing

Li Yunhe 李云鹤 Another early name of Jiang Qing

Jiang Qing   江青 Madame Mao, the name by which she is best known.

Wang Jiaxiang  王稼祥 Another former 28 Bolshevik and Party leader who sided with Mao

Ye Jianying   叶剑英   Immortal Communist military leader and statesman

Huang Hua   黄华 Great Chinese diplomat and vice premier

Chen Jiakang   陈家康 Early communist and very close to Zhou Enlai, serving as his chief liaison with foreign journalists.

Ma Haide   马海德   Dr. George Hatem, subject of a future episode.

Peng Dehuai   彭德怀   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Lin Biao   林彪   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Nie Rongzhen   聂荣臻   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

He Long   贺龙   Great Red Army general, one of the Ten Marshals

Liu Bei  刘备 Great Sichuan hero and King of Shu. One of the main characters of Romance of the Three Kingdoms

Zhuge Liang   诸葛亮 Another main character from Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Wise advisor to Liu Bei

Shaoshan   韶山 Birthplace of Mao near Xiangtan

Jinggangshan   井冈山   The cradle of the revolution, where Mao went after the Autumn Harvest Uprising

Ruijin   瑞金   City on Fujian-Jiangxi border

Zhangjiakou   张家口 City of 4.4 million that borders Beijing, Inner Mongolia and Shanxi

Lingdao   领导 leader

Zaolin'gou   枣林沟 Site of a key meeting after Yan'an was evacuated

Panlongzhen  蟠龙镇 Place in Shaanxi where Peng Dehuai raided a KMT supply depot

Ren Bishi   任弼时 Early political and military communist leader. Died in 1950.

Shanxi   山西 Northern province bordering Shaanxi

Deng Yingchao   邓颖超 Wife and lifelong partner of Zhou Enlai

Liao-Shen Campaign   辽沈战役 The first of the three great military campaigns 9-12-1948 to 11-2-1948  

Xibaipo 西柏坡 Town near Shijiazhuang that served as Mao's new base after Yan'an.

Shijiazhuang 石家庄 Capital Hebei Province

Hebei   河北 Province in China where Beijing is geographically located (but not part of)

Huai-Hai Campaign 淮海战役 The second of the three great military campaigns 11-6-1948 to 1-10-1949

Ping-Jin Campaign 平津战役 The last of the three great military campaigns 11-29-1948 to 1-31-1949

Li Zongren   李宗仁 Succeeded Chiang as president in January 1949

Xikou   溪口 Birthplace of Chiang Kai-shek

Ningbo   宁波 Major port city in Zhejiang province

tuocha   沱茶 usually 100 gram dome shaped tea bricks

Sheng Pu-erh   生普洱 Raw Pu-erh Tea

Menghai Tea Factory   勐海茶厂 Famous tea factory in Xishuangbanna

Xishuangbanna   西双版纳 One of the great tea cities of China

Shou Pu-erh  熟普洱 Ripe Pu-erh tea

Xiaguan Tea Factory   下关茶厂 Famous tea factory in Dali

Dali 大理  formerly known as Xiaguan, city in Yunnan

Yunnan 云南 Southwest province of China

gaiwan   盖碗 covered tea bowls

shiba da   十八大 The 18th Party Congress

Gum jie   金姐 Long serving tea lady at the CHP Complex

 

The CHP Pu-Erh Tea / Gaiwan Gift Set

http://www.teasenz.com/pu-erh-tuocha-tea-gaiwan-gift-set

 

Elias Belhaddad's History of Islam Podcast

http://historyofislampodcast.blogspot.co.uk

 

 THE ONE, THE ONLY, THE ANTHILL

theanthill.org

"While We're Here"

earnshawbooks.com

 

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