Episodes

  • How has the depiction of work changed in popular culture over time? Traditionally, how have women been portrayed in Indian movies vis-a-vis work and careers? Christina and Aditi sit down with award-winning long form journalist, Sohini Chattopadhyay to understand how Bollywood has traditionally depicted India’s women in labour. And whether this depiction is evolving—or devolving.

    With special guest, Sohini Chattopadhyay
    Sohini Chattopadhyay is an award-winning long form journalist who has written for publications all over the world. She writes a column on women in film for Film Companion

    She has won the Bala Kailasam citation for reporting on the web in 2017, the Ramnath Goenka award for feature writing in 2015 and the 2014 International Red Cross and Press Institute of India prize for humanitarian reporting. In 2015, she was one of only four nominees to be shortlisted for the prestigious ACJ Investigative Journalism Prize. She was also the recipient of the Robert Bosch media fellowship in Munich in 2017, an Asia Journalism Fellowship winner in Singapore in 2016, and a Chevening journalism fellow in London in 2015.

    MORE TO READ.

    This 2020 FilmCompanion piece by Sohini on female directors telling women’s stories:
    https://www.filmcompanion.in/features/bollywood-features/panga-and-chhapaak-what-happens-when-women-tell-womens-stories/

    This FilmCompanion piece by Sohini on Bollywood’s portrayal of women in the year 2019:
    https://www.filmcompanion.in/features/bollywood-features/women-in-bollywood-in-2019-the-good-disappointing-and-ridiculous/

    This 2019 LiveMint piece by Sohini about Bollywood and jobs:
    https://www.livemint.com/news/india/full-time-romantics-in-a-nation-of-job-seekers-1549567469480.html

    This 2018 LiveMint piece by Sohini looking at Bollywood’s depiction of women’s aspirations:
    https://www.livemint.com/Leisure/gW0RmkMUb27QUducQZaLIL/Why-dont-these-girls-work.html

    This 2017 LiveMint piece by Sohini, about professional identity and class/privilege in movies:
    https://www.livemint.com/Leisure/TcVedrnJxqu6b1ylDr6D0I/The-class-of-Kaira-Shyra-and-Shanaya-in-Bollywood.html

    This 2015 report titled ‘Cinema in Society: Shaping Our Worldview Beyond the Lens – Indian Films’:
    https://seejane.org/wp-content/uploads/cinema-and-society-investigation-of-the-impact-on-gender-representation-in-indian-films.pdf

    MORE TO WATCH.

    The Anupama Chopra interview with Sooraj Barjatya referenced in the episode:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i_adyBoMeQA

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • We couldn’t not address it. The elephant in the room, or rather, the virus in the air. Releasing more than two months since India went into lockdown to contain the novel Coronavirus, this episode of Women in Labour was recorded entirely remotely. This is a slice-of-life perspective on how COVID-19 has impacted the lives of some of India’s working women.

    With special guests:

    Kripi Malviya, psychologist and co-founder TATVA center in Goa
    Devli Bai, Ramli Bai, and Mirki Bai — together with Shram Sarathi and Aajeevika Bureau, we were able to hear from a few women from migrant households about how their lives have been impacted during COVID-19.
    Ritu Dewan, economist and Vice President of the Indian Society of Labour Economics
    Mayanti Langer, award-winning sports journalist and cricket presenter
    Ashu Haldwani, Owner, Get Gorgeous Salon
    Sahiba Singh Dhupar, Image consultant and body positivity activist


    MORE TO READ/WATCH.

    This UN report on mental health and COVID-19:
    https://in.one.un.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Policy-Brief-COVID-and-mental-health.pdf

    This TheSwaddle piece about the pandemic-productivity narrative:
    https://theswaddle.com/people-are-using-pandemic-productivity-as-a-distraction-from-grief-vulnerability/

    This Aajeevika Bureau panel on the launch of ‘Unlocking the Urban: Reimagining Migrant Lives in Cities Post-COVID 19’:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MwHqZvQLUEA&feature=youtu.be

    This PARI Network coverage series titled ‘Covering the human cost of COVID-19’ https://ruralindiaonline.org/articles/covering-the-human-cost-of-covid-19/

    This piece in the ET about migrant security:
    https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/view-why-the-issue-of-migrant-security-should-be-a-top-priority-in-indias-covid-response/articleshow/75054748.cms?from=mdr

    This EPW Engage piece by Dr. Ashwini Deshpande:
    https://www.epw.in/engage/article/what-does-work-home-mean-women#.Xs9lqqWSaR4.twitter

    This WEF article about COVID-19 and the world of sports:
    https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/04/sports-covid19-coronavirus-excersise-specators-media-coverage/

    This interview with Mithali Raj on sports, gender, and COVID-19:
    https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/sports/not-just-womens-cricket-every-athletes-momentum-is-broken-because-of-covid-19-mithali-raj/articleshow/75689724.cms

    This IndiaToday article about the salon industry:
    https://www.indiatoday.in/mail-today/story/the-new-face-of-beauty-1673537-2020-05-02

    This IndianExpress article about beauty salons post-lockdown:
    https://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/life-style/post-lockdown-beauty-salons-consider-hygiene-protocols-online-sessions-to-recoup-6410985/


    This UN report about promoting positive gender roles:
    https://www.unwomen.org/-/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/library/publications/2020/covid-19-promoting-positive-gender-roles-in-marketing-and-advertising-en.pdf?la=en&vs=4550

    This UNWomen blog about shifting gender norms during COVID-19:
    https://asiapacific.unwomen.org/en/news-and-events/stories/2020/04/how-men-can-help-shift-gender-norms-during-covid-19-crisis-heforshe

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

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  • We couldn’t not address it. The elephant in the room, or rather, the virus in the air. Releasing more than two months since India went into lockdown to contain the novel Coronavirus, this episode of Women in Labour was recorded entirely remotely. This is a slice-of-life perspective on how COVID-19 has impacted the lives of some of India’s working women.

    With special guests:

    Pooja Dhingra, pastry chef, entrepreneur, and author.
    Diya Kapoor, Yoga instructor, mother of two and now at-home school teacher
    Sunetra Choudhury, Political Editor at Hindustan Times
    Gulesh Chauhan, Uber driver

    MORE TO READ/WATCH.

    This Indian Express article about restaurants and COVID-19:
    https://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/food-wine/restaurants-after-covid-19-hospitality-industry-6412388/

    This CNTraveller article by Pooja:
    https://www.cntraveller.in/story/pooja-dhingra-closes-south-mumbai-le15-cafe-restaurant-colaba-coronavirus-lockdown/

    This ThePrint discussion about COVID-19 and education in India:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PVM3_0_nKSI

    This Brookings piece about COVID-19 and education in India:
    https://www.brookings.edu/blog/education-plus-development/2020/05/14/covid-19-in-india-education-disrupted-and-lessons-learned/

    This TheWire article about newspaper delivery amid the lockdown:
    https://thewire.in/media/print-newspapers-coronavirus-salaries

    Sunetra’s dispatches on COVID-19 on Twitter, and in this Youtube playlist:
    https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL9wl9ZX1TMB7vGapIp6OkWVrH-aRh0oZZ

    This MoneyControl article about cab aggregators and COVID-19:
    https://www.moneycontrol.com/news/business/startup/lack-of-demand-virus-scare-keep-ola-uber-drivers-off-the-road-5322851.html

    This ORF piece on gender and the gig economy:
    https://www.orfonline.org/research/gender-and-the-gig-economy-a-qualitative-study-of-gig-platforms-for-women-workers-65948/

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • Our next guest, Ira Singhal was prevented from joining the civil services because of discrimination against her disability. She contested the case, and then went on to earn the highest score in the country for the civil service exam. Today, she serves in the country’s Indian Administrative Services (IAS). In line with her purpose of helping and enabling others, the role allows Ira to create opportunities for others, to empower others.

    With special guest Ira Singhal
    Ira Singhal is the first Person with Disability to top the prestigious Civil Services Examination, 2014. She currently serves as D.C. of Keshavpuram Zone in North Delhi Municipal Corporation, and is the Brand Ambassador for the Department of Disability, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India. She is also a brand ambassador for Niti Ayog and is on the National Panel for Accessible Elections, Election Commission of India. She has won a number of awards, including India Today’s Woman of the Year 2015, President’s Gold Medal for Topping the IAS Training, and the First Ladies of India Award by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India. Ira is also recorded in the Limca Book of Records. She has been a speaker on wide ranging issues like education, disability, Gender issues, skill development, and career counselling at more than 500 international and national conferences, industry forums, universities, colleges, and other top institutions of the country

    MORE TO READ.

    This NDTV article:
    https://www.ndtv.com/jobs/upsc-cse-number-of-women-joining-civil-services-is-less-than-25-2196839

    This 2019 ThePrint article:
    https://theprint.in/opinion/understand-disability-mussoorie-academys-civil-servant-trainees-blindfolded-themselves/300759/

    This 2019 HT article:
    https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/north-mcd-installs-plastic-bottle-flaking-machines-in-karol-bagh/story-T55ah2AQdiRcqkvT2KiBsN.html

    This 2015 ET article:
    https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/ira-singhals-journey-to-the-top-of-the-upsc-heap-is-a-signal-of-hope-for-every-disabled-person-battling-the-odds/articleshow/50335561.cms?from=mdr


    MORE TO WATCH.

    This 2019 TEDx talk by Ira titled ‘The Role of Women as Future Leaders’:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HrHlE5NEtvw

    This 2018 TEDx talk by Nipun Malhotra titled ‘Disability and India’:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZzgsQTUQ-Fw

    This 2017 interview with Ira:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TxV7_vAltRE

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • As the founder of SHEROES, a women-only social network, Sairee Chahal discusses the many ways in which leveraging shared platforms and community networks can open up the future of work to India's aspirational women.With special guest Sairee ChahalSairee Chahal is Founder and CEO of SHEROES – the world’s largest online ecosystem for women. She is on the Board of Directors of Paytm Payments Bank. The SHEROES Network is home to the SHEROES app; Babygogo, a platform to support young mothers’; Maya, a global reproductive health platform and remote work product MARS. The network has a national and global footprint of 16 million women. Sairee is a Fellow of the Ananta Aspen’s Kamalnayan Bajaj Fellowship and a member of Aspen Global Leadership Network. She is also a recipient of the Devi Award, Femina Achievers Award, Editor's choice for L'Oreal, Femina Women's Award and Business Today, Most Powerful Women in Indian Business, and a Cartier Award Alumni. In 2018, SHEROES was awarded in the "Social & Economic Empowerment" category at the IAMAI Digital Awards. MORE TO READ.This 2020 Forbes India article:https://www.forbesindia.com/article/self-made-women-2020/gig-economy-helps-india039s-women-workers-gain-financial-independence/57945/1Sairee on jobs of the future:https://qz.com/india/1800366/sairee-chahal-on-the-jobs-that-will-define-indias-future/This essay by Dr. Urvashi Aneja of Tandem Research:https://tandemresearch.org/publications/field-guide-to-the-future-of-work-a-view-from-indiaThis 2020 ORF commentary:https://www.orfonline.org/expert-speak/the-future-of-work-embracing-informality-60680/This 2020 TheWire article:https://thewire.in/business/covid-19-lockdown-delivery-gig-workers This 2019 FES report:http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/indien/15719.pdfThis 2018 ORF Special Report:https://www.orfonline.org/research/a-new-social-contract-for-the-digital-age-46019/This 2017 ICRIER report:http://icrier.org/pdf/Online_Freelancing%20_ICRIER.pdfMORE TO WATCH.This 2019 interview with Sairee:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_4F7Mo8_zIThis 2018 interview with Sairee (in Hindi): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Ls3AIH22dYSairee’s 2012 TEDx talk:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4kNy7wsMuyUA BIG THANKSWomen In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • After the untimely demise of her husband, Gulesh Chauhan struggled to keep her family afloat. An unlikely lifeline, working with Uber as a full-time driver, led her down the road to recovery. And to professional satisfaction. The cab driver with a record number of 5-star trips, Gulesh ji talks about the speed breakers along the way, moments of triumph, and the way forward.

    With special guest Gulesh Chauhan
    Gulesh Chauhan is currently a full-time driver for app-based taxi service Uber in the Delhi NCR region. She is one of Uber India’s highest-rated driver-partners and among the country’s first women Uber drivers. Her story has been widely covered in the national press including in outlets such as Elle, the DailyO, and SheThePeople, among others. She has also told her story, in her own words, on platforms like Josh Talks and the Youth Ki Aawaz Summit.


    MORE TO READ.

    This 2019 HerStory Article:
    https://yourstory.com/herstory/2019/04/professional-women-drivers-mobility-employment

    This 2019 Scroll piece by Dr. Shilpa Phadke:
    https://scroll.in/article/926148/mere-populism-kejriwal-plan-to-make-transport-free-for-delhi-women-could-actually-transform-city

    This 2019 Indian Express article:
    https://indianexpress.com/article/india/kerala-government-to-appoint-women-drivers-in-government-5924629/

    This 2019 ORF special report:
    https://www.orfonline.org/research/rewriting-the-rules-women-and-work-in-india-47584/

    This 2018 TOI article:
    https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-times/no-ban-but-plenty-of-bias-why-so-few-women-drive-in-india/articleshow/64809217.cms

    This 2017 HuffPost article:
    https://www.huffingtonpost.in/the-vedica-diaries/drivers-wanted-in-india-but-women-need-not-apply_a_23156584/


    MORE TO LISTEN TO.

    This episode of The Ride Share Guy podcast:
    https://therideshareguy.com/rsg025-whats-it-like-to-be-a-female-uber-driver-with-tiffany-hudson-stroup/


    MORE TO WATCH.

    This Josh Talks video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rh6VKyGVL4Q

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • If India is to continue to grow its economy, it needs to involve the country’s women, according to economist and public policy analyst Devika Kher. You see, ambitious growth just isn't possible with half the population at home. In this episode, Kher breaks down the u-curve, one of the most important theories to understand the drop in women's participation in the workforce, in less than 30 minutes.

    With special guest Devika Kher
    Devika is currently a Master of Public Policy candidate at the University of Chicago's Harris School of Public Policy (Class of 21). Before joining Harris, she worked at The Takshashila Institution, an independent policy think tank in Bangalore, India for five years. Her work focuses on studying the interaction between labour and urban governance challenges. Devika has worked extensively on the declining female labour employment in India and urban governance challenges within developing countries. Devika has been a regular contributor to renowned national dailies, a contributing author for multiple books, and has co-authored papers on public expenditure on health in India.


    MORE TO READ.

    Devika’s writing in Pragati Express:
    https://express.thinkpragati.com/author/devikakher/

    This 2019 TheWire article by Devika:
    https://thewire.in/labour/why-having-more-women-in-the-workforce-is-good-for-the-economy

    This 2019 Deccan Herald article by Devika:
    https://www.deccanherald.com/opinion/in-perspective/get-the-women-into-the-workforce-741013.html

    This 2018 Takshashila Institution article by Devika, on ‘pink collar’ jobs:
    https://nationalinterest.in/breaking-gender-barriers-in-jobs-346662dab3a9

    This 2018 Takshashila Institution article by Devika on social impediments to women’s employment:
    https://nationalinterest.in/social-shackles-and-women-employment-b6f26d5fbef5

    This 2018 Pragati article by Devika:
    https://www.thinkpragati.com/opinion/4455/frailty-thy-name-is-public-policy/

    Claudia Goldin’s seminal paper on the ‘U’ curve (1994):
    https://www.nber.org/papers/w4707.pdf


    MORE TO LISTEN TO.

    Devika on Ep. 88 of ‘The Seen and the Unseen’ podcast:
    https://seenunseen.in/episodes/2018/10/1/episode-88-metrics-of-empowerment/

    Devika on Ep. 16 of the ‘States of Anarchy’ podcast:
    https://ivmpodcasts.com/states-of-anarchy-episode-list/tag/devika+kher

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • “Movies where women's issues are discussed become referendums on the issue: should women work or not? Should women be attacked or not? They're never about women's lives.” In this episode of Women in Labour, filmmaker, Paromita Vohra talks about adopting a narrative that is independent of the patriarchy. And of deciding for ourselves who we are and who we want to be.

    With special guest Paromita Vohra:
    Paromita Vohra is a filmmaker, writer, and dedicated antakshari player, whose work explores urban life, popular culture, love, desire, and feminism. She is the founder and creative director of Agents of Ishq, India’s best-loved website about sex and desire. She has directed the path-making films Partners in Crime, Morality TV and the Loving Jehad, Q2P, Where’s Sandra, Cosmopolis: Two Tales of a City, Un-limited Girls, and The Consent Lavani among others, and the television series Connected Hum Tum, written the feature Khamosh Pani, the play Ishqiya Dharavi Ishtyle, and the comic Priya’s Mirror. Her fiction and non-fiction writing has been widely published and she writes a weekly opinion column Paronormal Activity in the Sunday Midday.


    MORE TO READ.

    This 2018 TARSHI interview (in two parts) with Paromita:
    http://www.tarshi.net/inplainspeak/interview-paromita-vohra/

    This ‘The Spool’ interview with Paromita:
    https://thespool.in/paromita-vohra/

    Paromita’s column ‘Paronormal Activity’ in the Mid-day:
    https://www.mid-day.com/search/paromita-vohra-articles


    MORE TO LISTEN.

    Episode 155 of Amit Varma’s The Seen and The Unseen with Paromita:
    https://seenunseen.in/episodes/2020/1/13/episode-155-films-feminism-paromita/

    Episode 133 of The Sandip Roy show podcast by Indian Express:
    https://indianexpress.com/audio/the-sandip-roy-show/sex-and-other-pleasures-a-chat-with-paromita-vohra/6016935/


    MORE TO WATCH.

    ‘Unlimited Girls’:
    https://www.cultureunplugged.com/documentary/watch-online/play/452/Unlimited-Girls

    Agents of Ishq’s ‘Aika to the Baika: Police Complaint Lavani’:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9doWA12B_U

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • India’s Female Labour Force Participation rate is at an all-time low across industries except for one—garment manufacturing. In fact, the garment sector is made up of more than 50% women workers and is a critical driver of job creation for women. But at the same time it is an industry rife with difficulties and has perhaps the furthest to go in ensuring that women are truly empowered, respected and able to rise.

    This is a challenge our guest, Anant Ahuja, knows only too well. In this episode he talks to us about the challenges of trying to transform an old industry from the inside out by exploring ways to redesign the working experience to better support and empower female workers. But, as Anant says: “I think this idea of creating high quality jobs is not that easy, no matter who you're creating it for. I think there's a lot of areas to improve on, and yeah I think there's a lot of work left for us to do.”


    With special guest Anant Ahuja
    Anant Ahuja is the Head of Organisational Development (OD) at Shahi, India’s largest apparel manufacturer employing over 100,000 people. Since 2012, Anant has been spearheading positive change across the business through innovation and strategy to align the company’s growth with the development of people, community, and the environment. He has spoken about business and human rights at the United Nations and on women’s empowerment at Women Deliver. He believes that the private sector is a critical lever for development, which led him to start Good Business Lab (GBL), a labour innovation start-up that uses research to find common ground between worker wellbeing and business interests. Through his work at Shahi and GBL, Anant wants to change the way businesses operate.


    MORE TO READ.


    The Good Business Lab’s projects:
    https://www.goodbusinesslab.org/projects

    ‘From the Shop Floor and Beyond’ — Shahi Exports’ Blog:
    http://www.shahi.co.in/blog/

    This 2018 IndiaSpend article:
    https://archive.indiaspend.com/cover-story/3-in-4-indian-women-dont-work-can-skilling-and-guaranteed-jobs-change-that-38932

    This 2018 NPR article:
    https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/07/23/629871725/why-a-drop-of-4-degrees-made-a-big-difference-for-a-garment-makers-bottom-line

    This 2017 article about the Good Business Lab:
    https://networkcapital.co/2017/10/07/network-capital-member-anant-ahuja-social-startup-incentivizing-businesses-invest-worker-welfare/

    This 2017 interview with Anant:
    https://www.teaandwater.co/insights/perspectives/conversation-with-anant-ahuja/

    This 2017 article in the HBR:
    https://hbr.org/2017/07/an-experiment-in-india-shows-how-much-companies-have-to-gain-by-investing-in-their-employees


    MORE TO WATCH.

    This 2019 GBL Webinar:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ZbPE0HTbnY

    This 2018 EdBrand interview with Anant:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=Uxx3hioJoUs&feature=emb_logo


    UPDATE:

    This description has been updated to acknowledge important human rights allegations at one of Shahi’s factories in 2018. We believe in absolute transparency. Below is some more information.

    The original report and the resolution that was reached:
    https://www.workersrights.org/factory-investigation/shahi-exports-pvt-ltd/

    Shahi’s response to the allegation: http://www.shahi.co.in/blog/?p=697

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • Joined by Women in Labour’s Creative Producer, Nandita Gupta, Aditi Mittal speaks to Khushboo and Pooja about the importance of creches for working mothers. The sisters-in-law share deeply personal anecdotes about their journeys—from being confined to the house to finding new purpose in their work outside. All thanks to the friendly neighborhood creche.

    With special guests Pooja and Khushboo:
    Pooja works as an ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) worker. Khushboo works as a primary school teacher. Both their children go to a mobile crèche service center in North Delhi.


    MORE TO READ.

    This 2019 IndiaSpend article:
    https://www.indiaspend.com/government-cuts-funding-to-national-creche-scheme-crippling-lifeline-for-poor-working-mothers/

    This 2019 The Swaddle article:
    https://theswaddle.com/inadequate-government-child-care-schemes-stall-indias-economic-progress/

    This 2018 Scroll article:
    https://scroll.in/article/905727/as-india-rethinks-labour-rules-one-item-not-on-the-agenda-childcare-facilities-for-women-workers

    The MWCD’s National Minimum Guidelines for setting up crèches under the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017:
    https://wcd.nic.in/sites/default/files/National%20Minimum%20Guidelines.pdf

    This project, which is examining the outcomes of affordable daycare in India:
    https://ifmrlead.org/affordable-day-care-to-empower-indian-women/

    This 2015 Scroll article:
    https://scroll.in/article/759498/indias-women-need-creches-and-community-centres-not-quotas-to-join-the-workforce


    MORE TO WATCH.

    This 2020 TEDx talk:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4I986o5n4U

    This 2013 IDS video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XdIkXrxqsCk

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • In this episode of Women in Labour, former editor of India Today Magazine, author, wife and mom of two boys, Kaveree Bamzai makes the case that mothers should actively make time for the things that bring them joy—without letting guilt creep in.

    With special guest Kaveree Bamzai:
    Kaveree Bamzai is the author of ‘No Regrets: The guilt-free woman's guide to a good life’. Former editor of India Today, she has worked in journalism for over 30 years in organisations such as Indian Express and The Times of India. She is a TEDx speaker, committed member of several juries such as the CII Woman Exemplar Awards and ISC-FICCI Sanitation Awards, as well as a changemaker for Save the Children India.


    MORE TO READ.

    Kaveree’s column for ‘Open’:
    https://openthemagazine.com/author/kaveree-bamzai/

    Kaveree’s column for ‘The Daily O’:
    https://www.dailyo.in/user/16/kavereeb

    This 2019 ‘SheThePeople.TV’ interview with Kaveree:
    https://www.shethepeople.tv/books/kaveree-bamzai-motherhood-guilt-regrets

    This 2019 Asian Age article:
    https://www.asianage.com/age-on-sunday/091119/living-life-on-ones-own-terms.html


    MORE TO LISTEN.

    Episode 11 of ‘Stutee’s Book Club’ podcast featuring Kaveree:
    https://hubhopper.com/episode/11-kaveree-bamzai-no-regrets-the-guilt-free-womans-guide-to-a-good-life-1574841842


    MORE TO WATCH.

    Kaveree’s 2019 TEDx talk, titled ‘Do What Your Mother Did’:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HTZWFTWUC_Y

    This JLF 2020 panel featuring Kaveree:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FwzJ2CdYGeA

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • Former Senior Adviser to the World Bank, recipient of multiple awards, author of ‘Chup’ and founder of ‘Chup Circles’, Dr. Deepa Narayan explores women’s learned habits, pleasing behaviors and deference to men, resulting in a vicious cycle of silence. She argues that, despite the veneer of gender equality that middle and upper-middle-class women wear, we’re still only trying to unlearn these habits. And that our stories are more similar to each other’s than we’d like to believe.

    Listen to Dr. Deepa Narayan, in conversation with Aditi and Christina, as she encourages you to make yourself heard, even in the face of a society that constantly yells “Chup!”

    With special guest Dr. Deepa Narayan:
    Dr. Deepa Narayan is the author of the ground-breaking book, Chup: Breaking The Silence About India’s Women. Previously she was the Senior Adviser at the World Bank where she wrote the influential Voices of the Poor series. She was named one of the 100 most influential global thinkers by Foreign Policy Magazine in the USA as well as one of India’s 35 Great Thinkers by India Today. She is a TED speaker and founder of Chup Circles and Conscious Caring, conversational spaces in the time of COVID-19. Her opinion pieces have been published widely including in the New York Times, The Guardian, The Vogue, The Hindu, and Hindustan Times.


    MORE TO READ.

    This 2018 TOI interview with Dr. Narayan:
    https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-times/all-that-matters/many-of-us-are-feminists-with-bad-habits/articleshow/63247690.cms

    This 2018 WaPo piece about Dr. Narayan and ‘Chup’:
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2018/03/12/why-indias-modern-women-say-its-a-burden-to-be-female/

    This 2018 Vogue piece by Dr. Narayan:
    https://www.vogue.in/content/deepa-narayan-the-shocking-secrets-i-learned-about-indian-women

    This 2018 Elle piece by Dr. Narayan:
    https://elle.in/article/deepa-narayan-modern-urban-indian-woman/

    This 2018 TheQuint interview where Aditi talks about women’s laughter:
    https://www.thequint.com/entertainment/aditi-mittal-peformance-at-leddis-night-ladies-finger

    World Bank, 2000, ‘Voices of the Poor’
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/131441468779067441/Voices-of-the-poor-can-anyone-hear-us

    MORE TO WATCH.

    Dr. Narayan’s TED Talk, titled ‘7 beliefs that can silence women — and how to unlearn them’:
    https://www.ted.com/talks/deepa_narayan_7_beliefs_that_can_silence_women_and_how_to_unlearn_them?language=en

    This short clip featuring Dr. Narayan talking about the issue of gender inequality:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8ZPQ1TzDMI

    This short video about ‘Chup’ by Juggernaut Books:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E0aNjk6fZ-g

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • Born in 1970s America to two brilliant Indian economists, Anuradha Bhagwati struggled with her identity (and still maintains that her relationship with it is complicated). However, her unique experiences led her, incredibly, to the US Marine Corps where she encountered, challenged and battled sexism and harassment. A compelling story, narrated by Bhagwati in her book Unbecoming, and then to WIL hosts Aditi and Christina, this is a story of courage, defiance and, most importantly, empathy.

    With special guest Anuradha Bhagwati:
    Anuradha Bhagwati is the author of the critically acclaimed book, ‘Unbecoming: A Memoir of Disobedience’. She is a Marine Corps veteran, writer, activist, yoga and meditation teacher, and has won numerous awards for her work. She founded the Service Women’s Action Network (SWAN), which brought national attention to sexual violence in the military and helped repeal the ban on women in combat.

    Anuradha is a regular media commentator on issues related to national security, women’s rights, civil rights, and mental health. She lives in New York City with her service dog Duke.

    MORE TO READ.

    This 2020 TheOpen interview with Anuradha:
    https://openthemagazine.com/special/anuradha-bhagwati-women-make-incredible-marksmen/

    This 2019 LA Times piece: https://www.latimes.com/books/la-ca-jc-fob-unbecoming-anuraha-bhagwati-20190412-story.html

    This 2019 TOI interview with Anuradha:
    https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-times/all-that-matters/i-wasnt-allowed-to-choose-my-career-or-love/articleshow/69805383.cms

    This 2019 The Week piece:
    https://www.theweek.in/theweek/leisure/2019/07/05/anuradha-bhagwati-opens-up-on-battling-sexism-racism-sexual-harassment.html


    MORE TO LISTEN.

    This ACLU ‘At Liberty’ podcast episode with Anuradha:
    https://soundcloud.com/aclu/how-one-woman-took-on-misogyny-and-sexual-violence-in-the-military

    This NPR interview with Anuradha:
    https://www.npr.org/2019/05/22/725755600/how-can-we-protect-women-in-the-military-from-sexual-misconduct


    MORE TO WATCH.

    Anuradha in conversation with Brittney Cooper:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OTq0p2BdCfA

    Anuradha in conversation with Soraya Chemaly:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wzs5_4OGp2U

    This JLF Panel titled ‘Women and Work’
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oi9uG08IXns

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • Dr. Ashwini Deshpande is a professor of Economics at Ashoka University...and our go-to person to help us make sense of all the data around India's declining Female Labour Force Participation Rate. In this episode of Women in Labour, Dr. Deshpande simplifies some of the jargon to get straight to the heart of the matter—why are women in the country falling out of work?

    P.S. Watch out for some major truth bombs!

    With special guest Dr. Ashwini Deshpande:
    Dr. Ashwini Deshpande is a Professor of Economics at Ashoka University, India. Her Ph.D. and early publications have been on the international debt crisis of the 1980s. Subsequently, she has been working on the economics of discrimination and affirmative action, with a focus on caste and gender in India. She has published extensively in leading scholarly journals and has authored and edited a number of books and monographs. Dr. Deshpande received the EXIM Bank award for outstanding dissertation (now called the IERA Award) in 1994, and the 2007 VKRV Rao Award for Indian economists under 45.


    MORE TO READ.

    This 2020 The Wire article by Dr. Deshpande:
    https://thewire.in/education/virtual-instruction-online-teaching-isolation-covid-19-work-from-home-pedagogy

    This 2019 The India Forum article by Dr. Deshpande:
    https://www.theindiaforum.in/article/visible-and-invisible-barriers-women-working-india

    This 2017 Indian Express article by Dr. Deshpande:
    https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/gender-gap-indian-ranking-in-world-gender-disparity-4962303/

    This 2016 Ideas for India piece:
    https://www.ideasforindia.in/topics/social-identity/women-and-the-indian-job-market-glass-ceiling-or-sticky-floor.html

    This 2015 Ideas for India piece:
    https://www.ideasforindia.in/topics/human-development/adult-education-knowledge-and-confidence.html


    MORE TO LISTEN TO.

    Episode 6 of the INTER-LINKED Podcast, featuring Dr. Deshpande:
    https://nickledanddimed.com/inter-linked-a-global-affairs-podcast/


    MORE TO WATCH.

    This panel on Diversity and Inclusion at Institutes of Higher Education:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ff6TAslCBE0

    Dr. Deshpande’s interview with the Centre for Sustainable Employment:
    https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLGVC424KiQwvLQVJ10w3xLZHl2AKbIf8l

    Dr. Deshpande at an IGC panel discussion (Dec 2019) on ‘Gender and Labour’:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yw1ds7jMIg&list=PLPPPhjBKRX4t4nosXDfTe5vZ5tZg0lLDQ&index=3

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • Award-winning producer Guneet Monga is a hustler—in every sense of the word. In this episode of Women in Labour, the founder of Sikhya films talks to Aditi and Christina about her relationship with the hustle, the side jobs she’s worked (including selling Laughing Cow cheese and DJ-ing), first moving to Bombay, and how she made and distributed her first film at the age of 22 (spoiler alert: it's genius).

    With special guest Guneet Monga:
    Guneet Monga has been redefining Indian films and their journeys with diverse new-age projects, including the Oscar-winning Period. End of Sentence (2019), The Lunchbox (2013), Masaan (2015), and Gangs of Wasseypur (2011). One of the first Indian producers to be inducted into the Producer's Branch of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts And Sciences and featured in Variety's International Women's Impact Report 2018, Guneet Monga is a force to reckon with and a game-changing producer in Indian cinema. She is the youngest person to be conferred with the ‘Most Powerful Women in Indian Business Award’ by Business Today in 2014 and was voted as one of the top 12 women achievers in the Global Entertainment Industry by The Hollywood Reporter. In 2019, Guneet won Producer of the year at the GQ awards.


    MORE TO READ.

    This 2019 LiveMint piece about Guneet:
    https://www.livemint.com/mint-lounge/features/guneet-monga-world-citizen-1553841314069.html

    This 2018 Bloomberg piece about Guneet (excerpt from ‘Changemakers’):
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2018-10-20/excerpt-how-guneet-amarpreet-kaur-monga-transformed-bollywood


    MORE TO WATCH.

    Check out Sikhya’s projects:
    http://sikhyaentertainment.com/projects/feature-films/

    Guneet’s 2019 TEDx talk, titled ‘Show Up’: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_JUhARVz8MU

    Guneet’s 2015 TEDx talk, titled ‘Passions- Evolving with Life’:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H9-M0IjNvh4

    Guneet on Son of Abish:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9KSlJe_oADE

    This Quint feature on the stars of Period. End of Sentence:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akbIwXA-6es

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • Indian women do more unpaid work at home than anywhere else in the world - and, of course, more than men.

    Episode 5 of Women in Labour tackles questions of methodology, division of labour, and nomenclature. Are institutions reproducing patriarchal structures in the world of work? And what in the world can we do about it?! The hilarious and brilliant Dr. Ritu Dewan tells us!
    With special guest Dr. Ritu Dewan:
    Dr. Ritu Dewan is the Vice President of the Indian Society of Labour Economics, and President of the Indian Association for Women’s Studies (2014-17). She was, till her retirement, the first-ever woman Director of the Department of Economics, University of Mumbai, and the founder-member of the first Centre for Gender Economics in Asia. She is widely published on a range of issues — with over a hundred publications, including 30 books and monographs.

    MORE TO READ.

    ‘Invisible Work, Invisible Workers,’ 2019:
    https://www2.unwomen.org/-/media/field%20office%20eseasia/docs/publications/2019/04/in-invisible-work-and-invisible-workers-compressed.pdf?la=en&vs=1549

    This 2019 News18 article:
    https://www.news18.com/news/buzz/can-the-govt-get-my-husband-to-make-tea-indian-housewives-are-tired-and-yet-their-work-is-nothing-2060431.html

    Dr. Ritu Dewan’s publications on ResearchGate:
    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ritu_Dewan

    The PLFS 2017-18 Annual Report:
    http://mospi.nic.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/Annual%20Report%2C%20PLFS%202017-18_31052019.pdf?download=1

    This 2019 Business Standard article:
    https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/more-women-are-self-employed-in-india-fewer-hold-salaried-jobs-119070200112_1.html


    MORE TO WATCH

    Dr. Dewan on the gendered work continuum:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbOi67YJSgQ

    Dr. Dewan on the sub economics of paid and unpaid work:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzDcL_Axxt8

    This IDS, UK video on unpaid work, poverty, and women’s/girls’ human rights:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVW858gQHoE

    This Ariel #ShareTheLoad ad:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QAxm23SjHDo

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • Ever noticed how our public spaces and workplaces are full of men? Dr. Shilpa Phadke encourages women to take back the city with something revolutionary: loitering. In this episode, we ask how public spaces play a role in women's commutes, why women have to justify their presence in public spaces, and why loitering could be the revolution we need.

    With special guest Dr. Shilpa Phadke:
    Dr. Shilpa Phadke is a sociologist and associate professor at the Centre for Media and Cultural Studies at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. She is also a co-author of ‘Why Loiter? Women and Risk on Mumbai Streets,’ an absolutely seminal text about how women access public space in cities.

    MORE TO READ.

    This 2019 YKA interview with Dr. Phadke:
    https://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2019/11/loitering-as-resistance-interview-with-shilpa-phadke-for-16daysofactivism/

    This 2019 interview with Amy Lamé:
    https://www.smartcitiesworld.net/city-lights/city-lights/city-lights-amy-lame-night-czar-london-3789

    This 2019 Scroll piece by Dr. Phadke:
    https://scroll.in/article/926148/mere-populism-kejriwal-plan-to-make-transport-free-for-delhi-women-could-actually-transform-city

    This 2017 Scroll piece by Dr. Phadke:
    https://scroll.in/article/859979/what-kirron-kher-could-learn-from-women-who-actually-use-public-transport

    This 2017 Indiaspend piece by Namita Bhandare:
    https://archive.indiaspend.com/cover-story/why-87-of-delhi-homes-start-worrying-if-women-are-not-home-by-9pm-98297

    2017, ITDP and Safetipin, ‘Women and Transport in Indian Cities’:
    https://itdpdotorg.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/181202_Women-and-Transport-in-Indian-Cities.pdf

    This 2016 piece in The Hindu:
    https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/Give-women-equal-access-to-public-spaces/article14308408.ece


    MORE TO LISTEN TO.

    Episode 5, ‘Not safe in public’ of the HearMeToo podcast by Indian Express:
    https://podcasts.google.com/?feed=aHR0cHM6Ly9hdWRpb2Jvb20uY29tL2NoYW5uZWxzLzQ5ODI3MDAucnNz&episode=aHR0cHM6Ly9pbmRpYW5leHByZXNzLmNvbS9hdWRpby9oZWFyLW1lLXRvby9ub3Qtc2FmZS1pbi1wdWJsaWMvNTQ2NzExMy8


    MORE TO WATCH.

    Dr. Phadke’s TEDx talk, titled ‘Why Loiter?’:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlgGNv5t92A

    ‘Khadar ki Ladkiyan’, from the ‘Gendering the Smart City’ project:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7d6awx1E1J8

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • What does it feel like to have a very public pregnancy?
    Twitter’s India and South Asia Director of Public Policy, and new mom, Mahima Kaul did just that. And then lived to tell the tale. With a great sense of humor and incredible insight, Mahima discusses what questions to-be moms should be asking about maternity leave, and how to take on leadership roles post-pregnancy

    With special guest Mahima Kaul:
    Mahima Kaul is Twitter's Director, Public Policy for India & South Asia, where she engages on the internet public policy issues with government, regulators, academia, and civil society.
    She also manages the #TwitterForGood program, which works with NGOs and charities, focusing on issues of internet freedom, online safety, crisis and emergency, women in tech, and access. Prior to this role, she ran the cyber initiative at the Observer Research Foundation (ORF) and continues to be Co-Chair of their cyber platform, CyFy. She has written on internet governance and digital inclusion for the Indian Express, Hindustan Times, Index on Censorship, Global Policy Journal, among other publications.

    MORE TO READ.

    Mahima’s article in LiveMint:
    https://www.livemint.com/opinion/columns/when-a-bump-makes-you-size-up-a-corporate-policy-11576166721387.html

    India’s Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017:
    https://labour.gov.in/sites/default/files/Maternity%20Benefit%20Amendment%20Act%2C2017%20.pdf
    This article on Paternity Leave:
    https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/spotlight/is-india-ready-for-paternity-leave/articleshow/69801652.cms

    This iDiva interview with Mahima:
    https://www.idiva.com/career/advice/mahima-kaul-the-young-new-face-of-digital-india/17030895

    Mahima’s article in Hindustan Times:
    https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/let-s-talk-about-trolls-our-job-is-to-ensure-platform-continues-to-be-a-place-for-diverse-views-twitter/story-KnsPyMyh8v1kDVcnO1yqZL.html


    MORE TO WATCH.

    This Anouk ad:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rz5rAFAvqCs

    This SheThePeople panel titled ‘Feminism In India: Do Women Want to Have it All?’:
    https://www.shethepeople.tv/top-videos/feminism-in-india-do-women-want-to-have-it-all

    Mahima on women’s participation on social platforms:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4RbLh-zcGQ

    Mahima at the #NAMA conference:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CYRrCQ9hzE

    This BusinessInsider interview with Melinda Gates:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=BuYfALzDPrY&feature=emb_logo

    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • Can working women thrive in a man's world? Sports reporter Mayanti Langer should know. She talks to us about her boundary-breaking journey that actually began with football, not cricket, and how there are more women in her industry today than ever before, in episode two.

    With special guest Mayanti Langer:
    Mayanti Langer is among India’s most prolific sports journalists and broadcasters. She’s worked with every major sports channel in the country and has hosted seven World Cups across three different sports. Currently, Mayanti can be seen changing the game (!) and being a badass on Star Sports.

    MORE TO READ.

    Forbes profile on Mayanti:
    http://www.forbesindia.com/article/sports-special/mayanti-langer-on-the-right-pitch/53693/1

    Verve profile on Mayanti:
    https://www.vervemagazine.in/people/game-face

    MORE TO WATCH.

    Myntra Ad — Game Changers:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FbTWBTWCJbE

    MissField S1E13:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMBrVwU7qfE

    Firstpost interview:
    https://www.firstpost.com/videos/sports/mayanti-langer-on-international-womens-day-length-of-my-hemlines-is-not-going-to-affect-the-result-of-a-cricket-match-4382247.html


    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.

  • It’s hard to believe fewer Indian women are working now than fifteen years ago. But it’s true — and Namita Bhandare was one of the first journalists to shine a light on this mind-boggling fact.
    If you’re left wondering what, how, or why — this episode will examine the big picture of what impacts women in the workforce, what’s changed, and why this decline is happening.

    With special guest Namita Bhandare:
    Namita is an award-winning journalist and all-round amazing personality, with nearly 30 years of reporting experience. In 2013, she broke new boundaries by becoming India’s first gender editor for Mint. She now writes on gender for The Hindustan Times, Mint, IndiaSpend, and Foreign Policy.


    MORE TO READ.

    Indiaspend series:
    https://archive.indiaspend.com/cover-story/why-indian-workplaces-are-losing-women-our-nationwide-investigation-begins-53927

    Namita in the Hindustan Times:
    https://m.hindustantimes.com/columns/namita-bhandare

    2017 World Bank paper:
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/559511491319990632/Precarious-drop-reassessing-patterns-of-female-labor-force-participation-in-India

    2019 ILO paper:
    https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_674831.pdf


    MORE TO LISTEN TO.

    Namita on the Seen and the Unseen podcast: https://seenunseen.in/episodes/2019/8/5/episode-132-women-at-work/


    MORE TO WATCH.

    JLF Women and Work panel:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oi9uG08IXns

    JLF Visible Work, Invisible Women panel:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwgyi7fshyE

    Share the Load campaign:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8QDlv8kfwIM


    A BIG THANKS

    Women In Labour is generously supported by a grant from the American Center, New Delhi. All opinions, findings, and conclusions are those of Women In Labour and its hosts only — and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.