As with any startup opportunity, when the serial and successful tech entrepreneur Alexander Mars decided in 2013 to tackle philanthropy, he had to identify the market gap. Turns out, he already knew it: The disconnect, as he describes, between how much we want to give and how much we actually give.The challenge, of course: How to bridge the gap. Mars’ answer: Just like a business.
He gathered specialists in international development, social impact, open innovation, design thinking and technology to develop an industry-leading due diligence process to build and manage a portfolio of high impact social organizations.
Beyond the intense due diligence, Epic also leverages startup and business thinking into its fundraising and donor relations, from integrating into corporations’ payroll systems to enable voluntary and automated employee giving to using virtual reality technology to bring the on-site philanthropy experiences to life.
The result is Epic, a global non-profit investing in nearly 30 organizations in more than 10 countries, including groups that provide free legal and social support advocacy to abused and neglected children in New York, intervene in Mumbai’s red light areas to end intergenerational trafficking, run children’s hospice in the UK, and others.
More about Epic’s CEO and Founder Alexandre Mars, who over the past 20 years has launched and sold multiple companies in the internet, mobile marketing and social media industries, as well as founding blisce/, a venture firm focused on helping entrepreneurs build mission-driven global consumer brands and technology companies.
In what appears to be his spare time, the French native was named among Town & Country’s Top 50 philanthropists, and among “the 50 most influential French people” by Vanity Fair. In 2019, he was named a knight of the Legion of Honor, France’s highest civilian award order.
From gender-based pay gaps to leadership roles, advancement opportunity to corporate culture, the treatment of women in the workplace – and how to enhance growth opportunities for women executives – is and has been under continual focus.
But now this focus is frequently combined with a new, and growing trend: The aging and multigenerational workforce. The numbers may surprise you: The number one growing demographic in today’s workplace is women over 55. In fact, the number of people over 55 is going to be 25% of our workforce in five years.
The statistics come from Diane Flynn, Co-Founder and CEO of ReBoot Accel, accelerating the careers of women in the workplace and consulting with high-growth and Fortune 500 companies, as she puts it, “interested in creating workplaces where women thrive.”
It’s also why – with companies like Airbnb, Udemy, Visa and Gap, Flynn has launched The Silicon Valley Longevity Project, which seeks to bring together companies recognizing that “How companies prepare for and respond to changing workplace demographics will have a profound influence on their ability to compete in the global marketplace and will affect the communities in which they operate.”
More background: Flynn previously served as Chief Marketing Officer of GSVlabs, a marketing executive at Electronic Arts, and an associate consultant at The Boston Consulting Group. Like many professional women, she also left the workforce for a period to raise her family.
So what can and should companies do? And what lessons can be learned from executives and firms who have succeeded – and from those who have failed?
If one question has driven mankind’s quest for innovation, it very well might be this: How can we get more from less?
For most of our time on this planet, the answer was simple: We couldn’t. As my guest Andrew McAfee points out, for just about all of human history – particularly the Industrial Era – our prosperity has been tightly coupled to our ability to take resources from the earth. We got more from more.
That tradeoff yielded incredible positive contributions in nearly every field: Technology, industry, medicine. But there’s one glaring area – one of those “aside from that, Mrs. Lincoln, how was the play” areas – where the trade wasn’t so incredibly positive. Of course, that’s the environment.
As global industry rode the combination of human’s infinite ingenuity and Mother Nature’s finite resources – we all reaped the benefits. But we also saw the costs: Exponential global warming. Perhaps it’s not an exact straight line, but the connection is clear to all but a few climate deniers.
Luckily, we know the solutions: Consume less; Recycle; Impose limits; Live more closely to the land.
Or do we? What if, instead, these central truths of environmentalism haven’t been the force behind whatever improvements we’ve made and, more importantly, aren’t the drivers that will solve the existential task at hand: Saving the planet?
Instead, as McAfee argues in his new book, the answer is dematerialization – we’re getting more output while using fewer resources. We’re getting, as his title suggests: “More from Less: The Surprising Story of How We Learned to Prosper Using Fewer Resources – and What Happens Next.”
McAfee argues that the two most important forces responsible for the change are capitalism and technological progress, the exact two forces “that came together to cause the massive increases in resource use of the Industrial Era.” Combined with two other key attributes – public awareness and responsive government – we can and do “tread ever more lightly on our planet.”
Some background: Put simply, Andrew McAfee studies how digital technologies are changing the world. He is Co-Founder and Co-Director of “The MIT Initiative on the Digital Economy” and a Principal Research Scientist at the MIT Sloan School of Management. One of his previous books, with MIT colleague and sometime co-author Erik Brynjolfsson was a New York Times and Wall Street Journal top ten bestseller; his books in total have been translated into more than 15 languages; and he and Brynjolfsson are the only people named to both the Thinkers50 list of the world’s top management thinkers and the Politico 50 group of people transforming American politics.
McAfee knows his prescription to save the planet is controversial. He knows it will frustrate – if not outrage – most of his friends… assuming they’re still willing to call him friend. But as us non-academics say about people like McAfee: He’s done the math. He’s researched the data. And like it or not, he’s ready for the conversation.
October 1st marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China – the name given by Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong in 1949.
To understate the reality, a lot has happened in China over the last 70 years. The fact is, a lot has happened in China over the last 70 days – much of it unexpected, confusing, and on-going – politically and economically.
Politically, of course, pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong capture global attention and concern. But so, too, does China’s economic situation, in particular, its continuing – sometimes escalating – battle with the U.S. over tariffs, intellectual property, market access, currency valuation and more… all fitting somewhat neatly under the “Great Power Competition” with the United States.
For business and public policy leaders, the question remains: How did we get here – and where do China and Chinese-U.S. relations go next?
To find out, I talked with Isaac Stone Fish – a senior fellow at the Asia Society's Center on U.S.-China Relations, as well as a visiting fellow at the German Marshall Fund, Washington Post Global Opinions contributing columnist, and more. Stone Fish has studied China from the inside, having spent seven years living there. Today he continues to analyze China’s place in the world as a Truman National Security Project fellow, a non-resident senior fellow at the University of Nottingham's China Policy Institute, and an alum of the World Economic Forum Global Shaper's program.
What happened to Facebook?
Particularly in the post-2016 political campaign, the realities of data, personas and manipulation have come out into the open, from the front pages to Congressional hearings. As policymakers consider regulating companies like Facebook and Google around issues ranging from speech to monopolies, companies and consumers are thinking in new ways about the business of data privacy.
The Facebook story, of course, is instructive.
Among other areas, it’s a story about business models and incentives and what can happen to a company when the two don’t align with a stated mission – or, perhaps, the public good.
It’s also a story about privacy, data and data portability. In other words – who owns your data, and what combination of personal, corporate and regulatory action needs to address the rules around it?
It’s also a story about one of the major tensions of our time – to whom should a business be responsible? Shareholders? The community? Employees? And in a time of globalization, what responsibility does a company have within a country’s borders?
It’s a story that Roger McNameehas deeply explored. McNamee has been a Silicon Valley investor for 35 years, co-founding successful funds in venture, crossover and private equity – including his most recent fund, Elevation, with U2’s Bono as a co-founder. Along the way, one of McNamee’s investments was in Facebook, where he served, in part, as a mentor to CEO Mark Zuckerberg.
However, following the 2016 election – as well as the Brexit vote – McNamee decided he had seen enough. He felt that Facebook’s execution of its business model sometimes found itself at odds with a well-functioning democracy. He laid out his case in the book, “Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe.”
McNamee offers part history, part blueprint to the future. He not only outlines how we – and Facebook – got here, but also how we get out of this digital mess. He offers recommendations to policymakers, of course, but also to the rest of us – businesses and individuals – about how we can change the way things are done. McNamee answers the ultimate question of who has the power – Facebook or us?
For a long time in business and private equity, corporate sustainability – also known as ESG, the initials for Environmental, social and governance – was a rear guard part of the business that took front stage only when PR required.
That time has most definitely passed.
Today, ESG is not only front stage, but it’s often fully integrated into the deal making process – a central part of the business due diligence and on-going operations – as well as a key factor for LPs as they decide where to invest.
So what does ESG mean today? How involved in the portfolio companies’ sustainability strategies should the PE firms be? And how important is it to LPs?
That’s what I asked Adam Heltzer, Head of ESG & Sustainability at Partners Group, the Swiss-based private equity firm with more than $80B in assets under management. Not only does Adam oversee ESG integration throughout the investment process, but he also manages a portfolio of 150 value creation and risk mitigation projects across some 70 direct investments in private equity, infrastructure, and real estate. Previously, among other roles, Adam worked as Global Leadership Fellow at the World Economic Forum.
If you thought the battle between machines and jobs – the dislocation of labor and society resulting from digitization or automation – has been one-sided so far, just wait. The next wave of attack is well underway, and it’s called AI.
Artificial Intelligence, most simply, refers to computers that perform tasks that normally require human intelligence – things like visual perception, speech recognition, even decision-making.
Earlier this year the management consulting firm McKinsey famously wrote that “25 percent of the global workforce will either need to find new professional activities by 2020 or significantly broaden their technological skills. The World Economic Forum’s “Future of Jobs Report: 2018” states, “By 2022, the skills required to perform most jobs will have shifted significantly… [and] no less than 54% of all employees will require significant re- and upskilling.”
The greatest concerns are not just that AI destroys jobs, but that it increases inequality – that low-wage employees get displaced, while high-wage employees maintain or even extend their value that’s more difficult to replace with a machine.
Of course, new technologies have disrupted existing processes for centuries. Steam engines. Electricity. Microprocessors. Will the experience with AI be different than with previous technologies? Most importantly, what can governments, corporations, small businesses and individual workers do to not just avoid massive disruption, but rather position themselves to take outsized advantage of the opportunities?
To find out, I recently hosted an excellent roundtable discussion at Clayton, Dubilier & Rice with NYU Professor Robert Seamans.
Prof. Seamans’ studies how technology and governance structures affect strategic interactions between firms, affect incentives to innovate, and ultimately shape market outcomes. Previously he served under President Obama as a Senior Economist at the White House Council of Economic Advisers. He also co-authored an important review titled, simply, “AI and the Economy,” which explored the potential impact of AI on productivity and labor, and considered the various roles for regulation around antitrust, wages, data portability, and even immigration.
Raghuram Rajan has an unparalleled view into the social and economic consequences of globalization and their ultimate effect on our politics.
Rajan’s background is extraordinary: He has served as Chief Economist at the International Monetary Fund and Head of India’s Central Bank. He’s written several books, including one that won the Financial Times-Goldman Sachs prize for best business book in 2010. Today he is the Katherine Dusak Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
Rajan’s new book is an important must read that explains the dangerous connections among inequality, globalization and populism – and will change the way you think about the markets, government and local communities. It’s titled: The Third Pillar: How the State and Markets are leaving Communities Behind.
What made this conversation so good is not just what he says, but how he tells the story. As Rajan puts it: “All economics is actually socioeconomics – all markets are embedded in a web of human relations, values and norms… Throughout history, technological phase shifts have ripped the market out of those old webs and led to violent backlashes, and to what we now call populism. Eventually, a new equilibrium is reached, but it can be ugly and messy, especially if done wrong.”
Ron Williams knows leadership. He was, after all, Chairman and CEO of Aetna. When he joined Aetna in 2001, its loss from continuing operations was $292 million, with earnings per share loss of $0.46. By the time Williams left in 2011, the company’s full-year operating earnings were $2 billion, with operating earnings per share of $5.17. Beyond the numbers, though, During Williams’ tenure, Aetna was named FORTUNE's most admired company in the Health Care: Insurance and Managed Care category for three consecutive years.
Now Williams has written a book about leadership: “Learning to Lead: The Journey to Leading Yourself, Leading Others, and Leading an Organization.” However, he has also written a book about addressing many of the major gaps in society today, including the growth of inequality and the death of ethics.
In fact, Williams’ argues that it’s exactly because of these times that we must renew our focus on leadership. He writes: “Our society has a greater need than ever for talented, effective leaders. Given the enormous social and economic challenges we face, organizations of every kind – for-profit businesses, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies – are desperate for people of every background with the ability to formulate a compelling vision of the future and to inspire others to help make that vision a reality.”
Williams outlines the approaches one needs — lessons from his own experiences and those of people like Lucent’s Pat Russo, American Express’ Ken Chenault, Xerox’ Ursula Burns, McKinsey’s Ian Davis, and others — to grow as a leader. He acknowledges: Not everyone will become a CEO. That’s fine. Everyone still should live a life of purpose and action, and Williams outlines what he believes is the path to get there.
It’s a very personal book. Williams writes about growing up on the Chicago’s South Side, the powerful influence of his parents — his father was a parking lot manager who later became a bus driver; his mom a manicurist in a neighborhood beauty parlor — and the realities of creating a path in today’s business world. He writes for kids just starting out who want to understand how to become a leader and CEOs sitting in the chair right now who want to become better leaders.
More about Williams: Since Aetna, Williams has continued to help drive leadership in business, including in private equity. He as served as Operating Advisor to Clayton, Dubilier & Rice, where he is chairman of CD&R's portfolio companies currently serves as Chairman of portfolio companies agilon health and naviHealth. He successfully guided two other CD&R portfolio company exits.
His influence and experience don’t end there: Williams is the chairman and CEO of RW2 Enterprises. He is a director on multiple corporate, public sector and non-profit boards. Among many other organizations, he also is a member of the MIT Corporation, Vice Chairman of The Conference Board, and a member of the President’s Circle of National Academies.
About four years ago, Nobel Prize winning economist Joseph Stiglitz was attending his 55th high school reunion in Gary, IN, when he heard a story that made him stand up straight. Then he heard another. And another.
These classmates’ stories – about themselves and their families – brought to life the statistics Stiglitz had been seeing in his economic charts: Lost jobs, poor access to health care, shorter life spans, crumbling infrastructure, lost opportunity, waning hope. The numbers hadn’t lied, and now they were talking to Stiglitz at this gathering with old friends.
Their message: The economy was broken. In fact, more than just the economy wasn’t working – Capitalism itself seemed off.
From his current and past work, Stiglitz knew the causes: Exploitation & market power; mismanagement of globalization; a deregulated financial sector that helped lead to the Great Recession; new technologies that threatened even more job displacement; the growing difference between wealth creation and wealth extraction.
Following that class reunion, Stiglitz further saw an erosion of society’s pillars, and – being an economist – connected them all: The economy, capitalism, and democracy. He decided to sound the alarm, and the result is his new, powerful book: “People, Power, and Profits: Progressive Capitalism for an Age of Discontent.”
Stiglitz has written a definitive economic (and political) blue print for these times – a detailed agenda he calls Progressive Capitalism. “We have to,” he says, “save capitalism from itself.” I was excited to explore the ideas with him and the conversation didn’t disappoint.
About Joe Stiglitz: Beyond the Nobel Prize, he has earned enough awards to be their own podcast. Just one early example: the John Bates Clark Medal in 1979, awarded by the American Economic Association to the "American economist under the age of 40 who is adjudged to have made a significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge.” Among his career highlights: He served as President Clinton’s Chair of the US Council of Economic Advisers, Chief Economist of the World Bank. He’s the best-selling author of more than 10 books and today is a University Professor at Columbia University.
As anyone with even a passing interest knows, over the last decade, private equity has had quite a run: Deal multiples have hit record highs; while deal count declined, investment value grew again last year; and so-called “dry powder” – capital sitting ready to invest – hit a record high of $2 trillion in December 2018 across all fund types.
And yet, as always, questions remain:Can prices sustain their extraordinary levels?When PE investors run their crucial return projections – what assumptions are they making about the broader economy… or even a recession? And what about politics – is the industry ready for the 2020 campaign and new questions about the capitalism?Few people follow private equity – or have more sources and resources in the industry – than Chris Witkowsky, Editor of PE Hub and Buyouts. We discussed what’s next for PE, what he hears from investors and private equity firms, and whether they believe PE’s extraordinary run can continue.
Quick business and health question: How much medical debt exists in this country? Keep in mind, the U.S. is one of the wealthiest countries in the world. In fact, the U.S. spends more per capita on healthcare than any other country. Well, the amount according to RIP Medical Debt will blow your mind: $1 Trillion. What can be done about it? That's the subject of this conversation and a new book, End Medical Debt: Curing America's $1 Trillion Unpayable Healthcare Debt. The book is an extraordinary exploration of not only how this problem evolved, but also how it brings down the individuals and families burdened with unpayable debt. The authors explain how the system works or, more often than not, doesn't work. They also offer their own views on how we can get out.
The authors come from wildly different perspectives, all in the business or healthcare field. Jerry Ashton brings more than 40 years of experience in the credit and collections industry. Robert Goff spent an equal amount of time in the healthcare industry itself. Craig Antico is a financial industry leader in collections, debt buying, outsourcing, and consulting. They are the cofounders of RIP Medical Debt, which locates, buys, and forgives medical debt on behalf of individual donors, philanthropists, and organizations who provide financial relief for people burdened by unpayed and unpayable medical bills.
Here's how it works. RIP seeks out distressed medical debt in the collections industry and the community of medical providers, including hospitals and medical practices. RIP offers to buy this debt for pennies on the dollar, which is how RIP can make such a significant impact. The average ratio is 1 to 100. That means a donation of $50 can buy back as much as $5,000 in medical debt. $1 million can buy $100 million in debt.
Here's the punchline. Once this debt is in their possession, it's abolished as a gift from RIP to the patient, no strings attached, a gift made possible by complete strangers, people bailing out people. It's a simple, powerful solution to an incredible problem. Check them out at ripmedicaldebt.org.
We know that the health care system can be confusing – never mind the actual medical care. It also is costly. And from changing coverage to high deductibles to co-pays and more, the question remains: Who pays?
Jonathan Wiik has an answer. Jonathan is a Principal in Healthcare Strategy at TransUnion. He’s also the author of “Healthcare Revolution: The Patient Is the New Payer.”
Wiik has spent much of his career examining the health care payments transformation. From his experience and research, Wiik outlines a system where, as he has written, “On average, healthcare consumers are now responsible for 30% to 35% of their healthcare bill1. Patient payment and collection practices are highly complex, and with high deductibles, patients have evolved into a primary payer source.” Further, Wiik acknowledges, the system means too many patients ultimately can face debilitating medical debt.
Wiik outlines a go-forward approach that reimagines the patient as a consumer – and offers ways in which payers, providers, and patients must come together in new ways to address our health care crisis.
We frequently hear the complaint: Our education systems – particularly public education – are broken. Invest in these approaches? That’s just throwing good money after bad.
For example, investing in Head Start may make sense. In other cases, investing in K-12 might be the right approach. But coordinate and sustain ongoing investment in both? Forget it.
Only, it turns, out: That’s not what the data show. And that’s not the conclusion of Kirabo Jackson, a Northwestern University professor, who has analyzed that data, the trends, and the outcomes.
In fact, as Jackson explains: It’s specifically the continued, ongoing investment in kids and their education that delivers exponential results. As you’ll hear, investing in Head Start plus investing in K-12 – that math is simple: 1 + 1 = 3.
A word about Prof. Jackson: He’s the Professor of Human Development and Social Policy and Faculty Fellow in the Institute for Policy Research at Northwestern’s School of Education & Social Policy. An economist by training, his research has been published in articles have appeared in leading economics journals such as the Quarterly Journal of Economics, American Economic Journal, Journal of Labor Economics, The Review of Economics and Statistics, among others.
He’s turned his economic world view to the world of education, and in 2016, Education Week listed him among the top university-based scholars who are doing the most to influence educational policy and practice.
You know Silicon Valley – that magical place were people, ideas, investment, and opportunities have come together for years to generate the next generation of disruptive businesses.
The big challenge for Silicon Valley has not been bringing all of those assets from around to the world to one place in Northern California – it’s been how to bring Silicon Valley to the world.
Most specifically: How do you scale (to use a start-up word) the key elements around a start-up environment and distribute them globally?
That’s just part of GSV Labs mission. GSV stands for Global Silicon Valley, and as you’ll hear from CEO Nikhil Sinha, that’s exactly what they are. From physical accelerators placed in some of the most exciting locations in the world to digital environment that connects some of the most remote, GSV Labs has pooled an extraordinary collection of entrepreneurs, corporations, thinkers, and technology.
A word about Nikhil: He’s just the person to lead such an effort and well worth listening to. He has spent a career shuttling between launching and building global start-ups and leading various academic efforts, including as Vice Chancellor of Shiv Nadar University in India and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs at the University of Texas. Most recently he served as Chief Content Officer at Coursera, one of world's leading higher education platforms. It’s a great conversation.
Not only is innovation perhaps one of the most overused words in business, it also might be one of the most misunderstood.
Many people think of innovation as “eureka” moments. It’s not. Those are “eureka” moments. Instead, as you’ll hear, innovation requires purpose, design, process, and, yes, the room to take some chances.
Lee Clark-Sellers is the Innovation Officer at Ply Gem Industries. Sellers is systematically integrating innovation into the all areas of the company. And if you don’t think you can find innovation in the exterior building products industry, well, that may be another misunderstanding.
If you thought Uber’s network of cars is strong, you’ll be very interested to learn about a new network that two former executives are spinning off – and how they’re impacting the venture capital world.
Josh Mohrer is one of those former Uber execs – he was the General Manager of Uber in NY, NJ, CT and PA and helped grow revenues there from zero to $3 billion. Now, with William Barnes, who led Uber’s West Coast ops, Josh is leveraging the entrepreneurial spirit that drove Uber and driving it in a new direction.
He put together a syndicate of investors – nearly all former Uber employees – to invest in startups either by other former Uber employees or in adjacent businesses and sectors. The combination – funding plus operational expertise – is called Moving Capital and has created a model that others in the VC world are watching.
How does it work? What are the growth expectations? Here’s my conversation with Josh Morher.
You know that John Chambers has been a CEO. After all, he spent more than 25 years at Cisco, helping grow the company from $70 million when he joined in 1991, to $1.2 billion when he became CEO in 1995, to $47 billion when he stepped down as CEO in 2015.
What you may not know is that Chambers is also – perhaps foremost – a teacher. In fact, it’s a big part of what he does now as founder and CEO of JC2 Ventures, which describes itself as “mentors of digital innovation, who coach each company on their journey, using our experiences to help them see around corners, accelerate markets, and create entirely new ones.”
Teaching is also a big part of what he’s put in his new book, “Connecting the Dots: Lessons for Leadership in a Startup World.”
Now don’t get the impression that Chambers thinks he knows it all. He makes clear – in the book and in our conversation – that he’s always learning. Always asking questions. Always trying to discover what’s next.
That spirit and energy come across in reading his words – a playbook of his unique strategies for winning in a digital world –and they came across when I talked with him. I’d never met Chambers before. I really enjoyed the conversation. I learned a lot, and I think you will, too.
In many industries, the challenge of bringing more women into leadership roles – creating the opportunities to start and grow careers – remains. Financial services – alternative investments, in particular – is no exception.
That’s the problem Girls Who Invest is built to address.
The non-profit was founded in 2015 to inspire and empower young women to pursue asset management careers. Their goals: To see 30% of the world’s investable capital managed by women by 2030.
How do they do this? As you’ll hear from Girls Who Invest CEO Janet Cowell: They’re building a brand new pipeline – connecting leading firms, education and mentoring to create a new network of talent and opportunity.
About Janet Cowell: She’s got a fascinating and perfect background. She held publicly elected offices in North Carolina for 15 years and was the first woman elected State Treasurer there, managing over $100 billion in assets, and health and retirement benefits, for over 900,000 members.
But before her public service, Janet held positions in the private sector in the U.S. and abroad, including as a securities analyst for Lehman Brothers and HSBC in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia. She’s seen financial services from all sides.
If throughout its history GE brought good things to life, you might say that – along with a few select others – Beth Comstock brought imagination to GE. And if you listen to her, you will understand how to bring it your own business, too.
Beth’s story, perhaps, might seem hard to imagine. She began in PR and rose to become a GE Vice Chair. Along the way, among other roles, she served as GE’s first Chief Marketing Officer in 20 years and operated GE Business Innovations.
She has also left her mark on American popular culture. Beth helped lead GE’s strategic shift to “ecomagination” and the “imagination at work” brand campaign; she served as President of Integrated Media at NBC Universal, where she launched Hulu. She also green lit GE’s iconic post-9/11 ad of a resolute Lady Liberty rolling up her sleeves, climbing off her podium, and the simple words: “We will roll up our sleeves. We will move forward together. We will overcome. We will never forget.”
What does imagination look like? That’s what Beth explains in her terrific and personal new book “Imagine It Forward: Courage, Creativity, and the Power of Change.” It’s also what she explains to me in this conversation.