Episodes

  • Should we give up the dream of certainty?

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    We look for certainty to know where we are, to feel safe. Descartes founded modern Western philosophy on the search for certainty. And in our daily lives we have institutions to create the illusion of certainty, marriage in the precarious world of relationships, schools and universities in the world of knowledge. For psychologists tell us that uncertainty is one of the strongest predictors of distress. Yet certainty is also the enemy of progress and change, and as Eric Fromm argued 'The quest for certainty blocks the search for meaning'. To be certain is to have ended enquiry, to have called a halt to the new and the original, to have in a sense already died.

    Should we recognise the pursuit of certainty in our personal lives, in our pursuit of knowledge, and in religion and philosophy is destined to fail? Should we instead welcome, even encourage, the uncertain and the unknown as a vehicle for growth and potential? Or without the safety of the known are we all lost?

    Distinguished philosophy professor Simon Blackburn, maverick post post-modern philosopher Hilary Lawson and ground-breaking philosopher of value Ruth Chang question whether we can be certain about anything. Maria Balaska hosts.

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  • Can science and religion coexist? Listen to find out!

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    In this interview, Alister McGrath, the Andreas Idreos Professor of Science and Religion at the University of Oxford, explores the relationship between science and certainty. He charts his path from atheism to Christianity, and discusses how his faith is consistent with his scientific beliefs. McGrath asserts that reason is not a universal concept, but rather only a culturally contingent framework. He argues that a cross-cultural framework of reason is an essential tool that must be developed to ensure greater harmony between nations and cultures.

    Alister McGrath is a theologian, intellectual historian, scientist, and public intellectual. He currently holds the Andreas Idreos Professorship in Science and Religion in the Faculty of Theology and Religion, at the University of Oxford, McGrath is noted for his work in historical theology, systematic theology and the relationship between science and religion. 

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  • Have mundane setbacks become catastrophic? Our experts discuss.

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    Trauma was traditionally associated with events such as war, assault and natural disasters. Now it is increasingly used to describe everyday experiences like personal criticism or romantic rejection, and of becoming an empty therapeutic buzzword. Some psychologists argue that we risk undermining diagnoses of serious disorders by treating the mundane as the catastrophic, at the same time as making us less resilient.

    Should we stop describing everyday setbacks as trauma? Or is a looser understanding of trauma to be encouraged so that individuals can come to terms with their suffering? Or is this all a symptom of a broader cultural focus on our emotional lives which once promised better mental health, but which has now turned out to have undermined an entire generation?

    Neuroscientist Sarah Garfinkel, bestselling author of Zed Joanna Kavenna and fearless psychoanalyst Ian Parker explore modern trauma and what we can do about it. 

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  • Beyond right and wrong?

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    Politicians, scientists, experts, specialists and even philosophers frequently claim to be right and to have understood how things ultimately are. Yet at the same time they know this can't plausibly be the case. In the history of humankind there is no theory that has been shown to be definitive, no claim that cannot be disputed. Nor can we imagine a time when such dispute will come to an end.

    Should we give up the very idea that it is possible to be definitively right? Would this usher in a new era of compromise? Or is the possibility of being right essential to progress and culture, without which we risk violence and conflict?

    Author of Freedom in Age of Alternative Facts Santiago Zabala, pragmatic epistemologist Corine Besson and expert of Indian thought Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad clash over whether it is ever possible to be definitely right about anything.

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  • Are we right to abandon objective truth?

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    It has been forty years since postmodernism swept through the academy changing the character of the arts and social sciences, impacting everything from literary criticism to anthropology, art history to sociology. Soon after it invaded culture generally and technical terms such as 'deconstruction' became widespread. Yet now its critics, including members of the British Cabinet, argue it ushered in an era of tribal conflict, woke culture, and populist deception and is at the source of a pernicious decline in reason and objective truth.

    Should we seek to reverse the changes that postmodernism brought about and overturn its attack on the intellectual tradition of the West? Or was postmodernism a progressive force whose insights were largely correct? Or, do we need a new radical approach altogether?

    Co-founder and editor of The Philosophers’ Magazine Julian Baggini, award-winning journalist Minna Salami, radical philosopher Hilary Lawson and boundary pushing feminist Julie Bindel line up as prosecution and defence with postmodernism in the dock. Hosted by journalist and author David Aaronovitch.

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  • Are we incarcerating the innocent?

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    Note: this episode was recorded live at our philosophy festival HowTheLightGetsIn.

    Some argue behaviour is a product of our genes. Others that upbringing and environment play the primary role in determining who we are. So do we carry no responsibility for our actions? Courts have on occasion made judgments in this light. In 2006 Bradley Waldroup was acquitted of murder because he was found to have an unusual variant of a 'warrior gene' and to have been abused as a child.

    Is responsibility for our actions an illusion? And should we as a result abandon moral responsibility to build a fairer world? Or is the notion that our actions are determined by our genes, our upbringing or some combination a dangerous mistake? Many want to have it both ways: we are the outcome of our genes and upbringing but also responsible for our actions, but how is this possible?

    Eminent philosopher and literary critic Galen Strawson, stoic philosopher Massimo Pigliucci, and neuroscientist Sarah Garfinkel debate the essence of innocence and guilt. Hosted by novelist Joanna Kavenna.

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  • Is it bad if we are?

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    From the evening news to the latest films and novels - we are attracted to crises and the trials and tribulations of life. The pandemic brought stories of human suffering, whether from illness, isolation or joblessness, which we readily consumed. But the healthiness of this fascination with misery is questionable, potentially leaving us with a distorted picture of the state of affairs and low expectations for our happiness. Is this focus on negative human experiences universal, a hangover from our evolutionary past and originally a survival technique? Or is it a symptom of a culture in decline? Should we seek to snap out of this pessimistic cultural focus and instead celebrate success stories and look positively to the future? 

    Award-winning authors Elise Valmorbida and Meg Rosoff and philosopher and an honorary professor at UCL Nick Zangwill discuss the call of the catastrophe and calamity. Mary Ann Sieghart hosts.  

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  • How did consciousness come into existence?

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    'Steven Pinker and Sam Harris have argued "the emergence of consciousness is simply incomprehensible". While recent neuroscientists have concluded "there is no convincing function to be found for consciousness". But if so, why are we conscious? Is consciousness an accurate description of what's happening to us, a sort of internal dashboard of the current state of affairs? Or is it a construction made to achieve certain outcomes?

    Has evolution got something seriously wrong if consciousness is a mere by-product of being human? Do we need a new account of consciousness and how it fits into our model of the universe? Is it possible that consciousness itself is leading us astray?

    Famed cognitive psychologist Donald Hoffman, celebrated psychiatrist and former literary scholar Iain McGilchrist, trailblazing evolutionary theorist and geneticist Eva Jablonka and pioneering philosopher of consciousness Michelle Montague lock horns over whether consciousness evolved. Robert Lawrence Kuhn hosts. 

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  • Do we need suffering to lead a meaningful life?

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    From the plots of Hollywood movies to the roots of Christianity, many see value in adversity and suffering. Be it in character building boot camps or overcoming the trials of a difficult childhood or adult life. Yet the great majority of us do our very best to avoid suffering in our own lives.

    Should we conclude that the value of adversity and suffering is an illusion? A hangover from Christianity that modernity needs to excise? Or is it a vital and critical element in building personality and enabling a meaningful, fulfilling and significant life?

    Britain’s most beloved psychotherapist and author of “Fat is a Feminist Issue” Susie Orbach, renowned transhumanist Anders Sandberg, and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Bristol Havi Carel explore the significance of suffering in modern society. Hosted by philosopher Julian Baggini.

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  • Is language capable of communicating experience?

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    We think sharing experience is essential to being human. At an individual level, we share experiences to get to know others and understand them. Yet from the taste of an apple to giving birth, we know we cannot fully describe the experience to someone who has not already had it. Many now also maintain that it is impossible to communicate the experience of discrimination, and other cultures can only be understood by those who have experienced it. But even if it remains an impossible task - for language to truly bridge our separate realities - should it nevertheless remain something that is continually strived for?

    Professor of Black Studies at Birmingham City University Kehinde Andrews, linguist and Associate Professor of English and comparative literature at Columbia University John McWhorter, and Professor of philosophy and cognitive science at Yale University Laurie Ann Paul discuss whether or not language is capable of communicating lived experience. Mary-Jane Rubenstein hosts. 

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  • Can empirical observation lead us to the truth?

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    From Newton to Darwin, Curie to Einstein, science has been built on empirical observation. Now the very idea of neutral observation is under threat. In a postmodern world it is claimed all observation is perspectival, everything we see influenced by what we already think. The founder of quantum mechanics, Heisenberg went further arguing that observing reality was not even possible. Are we at sea in a world of competing models? Or is it time to reassert the value of empirical observation, supported perhaps by machine learning and big data, as a means of choosing between incompatible theories?

    Steve Fuller is an academic studying science and technology. Fuller has published prolifically on such topics as intelligent design, the sociology of academia, and transhumanism.

    Angela Saini is an award-winning science journalist, author and broadcaster. She regularly presents science programmes for the BBC, and her writing has appeared in publications ranging from New Scientist, Wired and the Guardian.

    Rupert Sheldrake is a biologist and bestselling author. Best known for his 2012 book 'The Science Delusion' and the controversial, viral TED talk he gave which was banned by the organisation.

    Peter Atkins is a chemist and Fellow of Lincoln College. He’s a Distinguished Supporter of Humanists UK, Atkins is outspoken in his opposition to religion.

    Danielle Sands hosts.

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  • Is pantheism more radical than atheism?

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    Pantheism is the radical belief that reality and god are one and the same thing. Why has it been so feared for 400 years? Philosopher and author of Strange Wonder, Mary-Jane Rubenstein shows how the idea threatens much more than just religion.

    Mary-Jane Rubenstein is Professor of Religion at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, USA. Her book Worlds Without End: The Many Lives of the Universe examines cosmological models throughout history, from the world-views of the Ancient Greeks through to the well-respected multiverse theory in modern science. She links contemporary models of the universe to their forerunners and explores the reason for their recent resurgence. 

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  • Are 'facts' a tool for manipulation? Listen to find out!

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    Facts and reason are essential if we are to make progress and create a better world. At least that's how it used to be. But now it seems everyone has their own 'facts'. Our political leaders have 'alternative' facts, but so, it is also claimed, do the liberal elite and the mainstream media. Meanwhile, reason has been derided by many as a typically male bludgeon to deny alternative views. Should we welcome the challenge to facts and reason as a progressive move undermining the authority of traditional Western hierarchies? Or is the undermining of facts and reason a singularly dangerous exercise?

    Professor of Philosophy at the Open University Sophie-Grace Chappell, Professor of Philosophy at Stockholm University Anandi Hattiangadi and Professor of Philosophy at the New College of the Humanities Simon Blackburn dicuss the changing value of truth in contemporary society. Julian Baggini hosts.

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  • Can we be sure there is a physical reality? Our philosophers and scientists debate.

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     No-one who has ever stepped on a Lego brick could doubt the reality of physical objects. Yet from Heraclitus to George Berkeley, many philosophers claimed to have disproven the existence of things. Now even high-energy particle physicists are inclined to agree and describe material stuff as energy, or even as mathematical constructs. Could the world truly be made up of fields and processes, rather than physical stuff? Or is science trapped in a philosophical fantasy from which it needs to escape?

    Chemist and Fellow of Lincoln College Peter Atkins, Philosopher of Science at the University of Bristol James Ladyman and author of A Field Guide to Reality Joanna Kavenna debate whether the everyday objects that surround us are an illusion. Julian Baggini hosts.

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  • Does nature always know best? Yuval Noah Harari and Slavoj Žižek debate.

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    Most think of nature as good, while humans and human interventions are often seen as problematic and even on occasion evil. From eradicating e-numbers from our diets to refusing vaccines, many are motivated by the idea that nature knows best.

    Yet malaria is natural, the malaria vaccine is not. Crop failure, hurricanes, tsunamis - all are deadly, and all natural. Human actions are essential to extend and save lives from natural calamity.

    Is our attachment to nature undermining belief in ourselves? Should we have more faith in the human and less trust in nature? Or, are we right to be sceptical of human intervention and should we see the renewed reverence for nature as a positive return to an ancient and essential belief? Then again, should we accept that we are part of the natural world, and give up on the false distinction between real and artificial, natural and unnatural?

    World-famous intellectual Yuval Noah Harari and firebrand philosopher Slavoj Žižek debate whether nature is friend or foe. Hosted by scientist Güneş Taylor.

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  • Are we living in a simulation?

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    Modern technology has ushered in a new era of augmented reality - one so sophisticated that some argue within a century we will be unable to distinguish the 'real' from the 'virtual'. Yet with increasing concerns that virtual reality is simply a flawed escapism, could we imagine ourselves living meaningful lives inside a virtual world? World-renowned philosopher and cognitive scientist David Chalmers outlines his highly original take on the matter.

    David Chalmers is an Australian philosopher and cognitive scientist who specialises in the philosophy of mind, language and more recently, virtual reality. He is a Professor of Philosophy and Neural Science at New York University, as well as co-director of NYU's Center for Mind, Brain and Consciousness.

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  • Is government responsible for people's happiness? Paul Dolan tells us how to reach happiness and how public policy could get involved.

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    From ancient philosophers to modern scientists we have been perplexed by happiness. In this interview, Professor of Behavioural Science at the LSE, Paul Dolan, discusses what happiness is and whether it should affect public policy. He engages with purpose vs happiness and how we, as a society, can find ways to promote happiness via public policy.

    Paul Dolan's main research interests are human behaviour and happiness, and the relationships between them, particularly as they apply to policy. He is author of the bestselling books Happiness by Design and Happy Ever After. He is also host of the Duck / Rabbit podcast about the polarisation problem in our society.

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  • Should we see nature as a divine source, or will doing so lead to self-annihilation?

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    From Greece’s Gaia to the Hindu Prithvi, many cultures have seen the Earth as a divine being. Christianity and Western culture however removed god from nature deriding such outlooks as 'pagan'. The earth was recast as a resource for humans, to be conquered, settled and tamed. Now it seems the tides may be changing again. Rivers and rainforests are being given legal rights and some philosophers go further arguing that the planets of the solar system should too. Nature it would seem is the new god.

    Might re-embracing Mother Earth be just what we need to prevent environmental catastrophe and destruction of society? Or is the return to the gods of nature a dangerous step that undermines human goals and values and threatens a return to superstition and fate?

    Psychedelic philosopher Peter Sjöstedt-Hughes, internationally-renowned climate scientist Tim Palmer, and author-broadcaster-podcaster Melanie Challenger test each other's beliefs about nature and god. Hosted by philosopher Hilary Lawson

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  • How our brains lie to us and science follows.

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    With a background in psychiatry, neuroimaging, and philosophy, Iain McGilchrist has a unique perspective on the world, the mind, and everything in between. Here, he discusses his new book, The Matter with Things: Our Brains, Our Delusions, and the Unmaking of the World.

    Iain McGilchrist is psychiatrist, writer, and former Oxford literary scholar. He is committed to the idea that the mind and brain can be understood only by seeing them in the broadest possible context, a notion which is fundamental to his two most famous works: The Master and his Emissary, and The Matter With Things

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  • Is rationality productive or is it a method for manipulation?

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    Rationality, once revered, has had a bad press. Increasingly derided as the rhetorical bluster of the educated elite, typically powerful and male. And seen as the prejudiced claim of those who are sure they are right. Yet in its absence public debate becomes ever more rancorous and tribal.

    Do we need less emotion, more calm, and more rational conversation and debate? Should we see rationality as a method for positive change? Or is rationality a rhetorical delusion, a means of dressing up privilege and power, which should be seen for what it is, a defence of the vested interests it seeks to hide?

    Eminent philosopher of mind and psychology Sophie Archer, ground breaking Oxford logician Timothy Williamson and trailblazing cultural critic Nina Power put reason and emotion to the test. Hosted by Mary Ann Sieghart.

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