Episódios

  • My guest is Casey Halpern, M.D., Chief of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery and Professor of Neurosurgery at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Halpern’s research and clinical practice focus on using deep brain stimulation to treat compulsive and movement disorders (e.g., binge eating disorders, bulimia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Parkinson’s disease essential tremor, dystonia). We discuss using deep brain stimulation to help patients who suffer from movement and compulsive disorders and applying this treatment to patients afflicted with binge eating. We also explore applications of this technology to other conditions such as OCD, anorexia and tremor, and the future therapeutic directions of the use of non-invasive brain stimulation approaches, including transcranial magnetic stimulation and ultrasound, for the treatment of other psychiatric illnesses and conditions. This episode will interest those curious about the biology of eating, anorexia, bulimia, compulsive thoughts and behaviors, and movement.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman
    Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Dr. Casey Halpern & Disordered Eating & Brain Stimulation
    (00:03:18) ROKA, Eight Sleep, InsideTracker
    (00:07:19) Momentous Supplements
    (00:08:28) Neurosurgeon’s View of the Brain, Neurosurgery Specialization
    (00:13:05) Deep Brain Stimulation & Other Unexpected Positive Effects
    (00:17:20) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Prescriptions & Cognitive Therapies
    (00:25:40) Brain Areas in OCD, Risk, Rewards & Addiction
    (00:31:11) AG1 (Athletic Greens)
    (00:32:27) Facial and Vocal Ticks, Stimulants, Stress & Superstition
    (00:39:28) Nucleus Accumbens, Reward Circuits, Eating Disorders & Obesity
    (00:47:18) Stimulation of Nucleus Accumbens, Continuous vs. Episodic Stimulation
    (00:49:49) Binge Eating Disorder & Loss of Control Eating
    (00:53:02) Developing Binge Eating Disorder: Predisposition, Environment, Stress
    (01:02:07) Electrodes in Nucleus Accumbens, Identifying “Craving Cells”
    (01:11:41) Effects of Stimulation, Interrupting Craving, Intermediate Stimulation
    (01:16:46) Anorexia, Obesity & Compulsions, Potential Treatments for Anorexia
    (01:23:14) Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
    (01:32:27) MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound: Tremor, Essential Tremor & Parkinson’s
    (01:36:40) Future of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Epilepsy & Depression
    (01:41:51) Pre-Behavioral States in Compulsion & Awareness, Mood Provocation
    (01:48:02) Machine Learning/Artificial Intelligence & Compulsion Predictions
    (01:53:05) Neurosurgeon Hands, Resistance Training & Deadlifts
    (01:59:00) “Neurosurgeon Calm,” Quality Time & Prioritization, Neurosurgeon Training
    (02:09:53) Daily Habits: Sleep, Exercise, Mediation
    (02:11:59) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn
     Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • In this episode, I explain how nicotine impacts the brain and body, including its potent ability to enhance attention, focus, and alertness, increase blood pressure and metabolism and reduce appetite. I discuss nicotine’s ability to increase the action of neurochemicals, including dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine and activate sympathetic (alertness-promoting) neural circuits. I also discuss common nicotine delivery methods, such as cigarettes, vaping, dip, and snuff, and how they each create their own unique experience and how they, but not nicotine itself, cause cancer and other adverse health effects. I also explain science-based tools to permanently quit smoking cigarettes or vaping, including peer-reviewed clinical hypnosis tools, antidepressants, and alternative nicotine replacement (patches, lozenges, gums etc.). As nicotine is one of the most widely used substances with billions of users — most of whom report wanting to quit — this episode ought to be of interest to former/current nicotine users, those who want to quit smoking or vaping and/or those interested in learning the biology behind how nicotine impacts the brain and body.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Nicotine
    (00:02:47) Momentous Supplements
    (00:03:41) Tool: Brief Daily Meditation & Focus
    (00:05:59) The Arrow Model of Focus, Alpha GPC & Garlic Supplements
    (00:10:43) Thesis, InsideTracker, ROKA
    (00:14:35) Nicotine Effects vs. Methods of Delivery, Acetylcholine
    (00:19:55) Where is Nicotine Found? Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
    (00:25:12) Nicotine & Effects on the Brain: Appetite, Dopamine & GABA
    (00:30:58) AG1 (Athletic Greens)
    (00:32:11) Nicotine, Acetylcholine & Attentional “Spotlighting”
    (00:37:29) Nicotine, Norepinephrine & Alertness/Energy
    (00:41:10) Nicotine & Effects on Appetite & Metabolism
    (00:46:47) Nicotine & Effects on Body: Sympathetic Tone
    (00:51:29) Nicotine & Cognitive Work vs. Physical Performance
    (00:55:08) Nicotine Delivery Methods & Side Effects, Young People & Dependency
    (00:58:35) Smoking, Vaping, Dipping & Snuffing: Carcinogens & Endothelial Cells
    (01:02:34) Smoking, Vaping, Dipping & Snuffing: Negative Impacts on Lifespan & Health
    (01:09:23) How to Quit Smoking, Nicotine Cravings & Withdrawal
    (01:13:56) Vaping & Nicotine, Rates of Effect Onset, Dopamine, Addiction & Depression
    (01:25:06) Tool: Quitting Smoking & Clinical Hypnosis, Reveri
    (01:30:16) Bupropion (Wellbutrin) & Quitting Smoking
    (01:36:24) Tool: A Nicotine Replacement Schedule to Quit Smoking, Nicotine Patch/Gum
    (01:41:52) Tool: Biological Homeostasis & Nicotine Withdrawal, The “First Week” Strategy
    (01:51:39) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

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  • My guest is David Anderson, PhD, a world expert in the science of sexual behavior, violent aggression, fear and other motivated states. Dr. Anderson is a Professor of Biology at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), a member of the National Academy of Sciences and an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). We discuss how states of mind (and body) arise and persist and how they probably better explain human behavior than emotions per se. We also discuss the many kinds of arousal that create varying levels of pressure for certain behaviors to emerge. We discuss different types of violent aggression and how they are impacted by biological sex, gender, context, prior experience, and hormones, and the neural interconnectedness of fear, aggression and sexual behavior. We also discuss peptides and their role in social isolation-induced anxiety and aggression. Dr. Anderson also describes novel, potentially powerful therapeutics for mental health. This episode should interest anyone wanting to learn more about mental health, human emotions, sexual and/or violent behavior. Thank you to our sponsorsAG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/hubermanLevels: https://levels.link/hubermanHelix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/hubermanLMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/hubermanSupplements from Momentoushttps://www.livemomentous.com/hubermanFor the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.comTimestamps(00:00:00) Dr. David Anderson, Emotions & Aggression (00:03:33) Momentous Supplements (00:04:27) Levels, Helix Sleep, LMNT (00:08:10) Emotions vs. States(00:10:36) Dimensions of States: Persistence, Intensity & Generalization(00:14:38) Arousal & Valence (00:18:11) Aggression, Optogenetics & Stimulating Aggression in Mice, VMH(00:24:42) Aggression Types: Offensive, Defensive & Predatory (00:29:20) Evolution & Development of Defensive vs. Offensive Behaviors, Fear(00:35:38) Hydraulic Pressures for States & Homeostasis(00:38:33) AG1 (Athletic Greens)(00:39:46) Hydraulic Pressure & Aggression(00:44:50) Balancing Fear & Aggression(00:48:31) Aggression & Hormones: Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone(00:52:33) Female Aggression, Motherhood(00:59:48) Mating & Aggressive Behaviors (01:05:10) Neurobiology of Sexual Fetishes (01:10:06) Temperature, Mating Behavior & Aggression(01:15:25) Mounting: Sexual Behavior or Dominance?(01:20:59) Females & Male-Type Mounting Behavior(01:24:40) PAG (Periaqueductal Gray) Brain Region: Pain Modulation & Fear (01:30:38) Tachykinins & Social Isolation: Anxiety, Fear & Aggression (01:43:49) Brain, Body & Emotions; Somatic Marker Hypothesis & Vagus Nerve (01:52:52) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab ClipsTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • In this episode, I provide a list of behavioral, nutritional, and supplement-based tools you can use to improve your ability to get into a focused state to do mental or physical work. I explain science-supported strategies for transitioning into focus, maintaining focus during the work bout, and exiting the focus session, which is also critical, including decompression/defocusing tools. I explain when and how to use: binaural beats, caffeine, deliberate cold exposure, the pros and cons of working in fasted vs. fed states, and supplements and foods that enhance dopamine, epinephrine (i.e., adrenaline) and acetylcholine to promote optimal focus. Also, I explain how short behavioral practices, such as meditation and visual gaze training, will benefit your ability to focus over the long term. As deep focus is crucial to significantly improve cognitive or physical performance in any realm, this episode should be useful to anyone. By the end, you’ll have an essential toolkit of science-supported, low- to zero-cost focus and concentration strategies to select from that can be tailored to your physical and mental performance needs.Thank you to our sponsorsAG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/hubermanThesis: https://takethesis.com/hubermanLMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/hubermanEight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/hubermanVirtusan: https://virtusan.com/hubermanSupplements from Momentoushttps://www.livemomentous.com/hubermanFor the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.comTimestamps(00:00:00) Focus Toolkit (00:04:25) Momentous Supplements (00:05:38) Thesis, LMNT, Eight Sleep (00:09:37) The “Arrow Model” of Focus: Epinephrine, Acetylcholine & Dopamine(00:15:15) Modulation vs. Mediation, Importance of Sleep(00:18:11) Tool: Binaural Beats to Improve Concentration (00:20:54) Tool: White, Brown & Pink Noise, Transition to Focused State(00:22:55) Warm-Up for Cognitive Work, Refocusing Attention & Neuroplasticity (00:26:14) Tool: Ultradian Cycles: Warm-Up, Maintaining Focus & Deliberate Defocusing (00:31:22) How Many Daily Ultradian Cycles Can One Perform? (00:34:14) AG1 (Athletic Greens)(00:35:35) Virtusan: Mental & Physical Health Journeys (00:36:52) Tool: Fasted vs. Fed States & Focus, Prevent an Afternoon Crash, Ketosis(00:45:52) Tool: Foods to Improve Focus & Regulating Food Volume(00:47:53) Tool: Caffeine & Focused Work, Dopamine Efficacy, Alertness(00:52:55) Tool: Stress & Improved Concentration (00:55:46) Tool: Deliberate Cold Exposure & Focus, Dopamine & Epinephrine (01:00:39) Layer Focusing Tools & Design Your Own Protocols (01:01:19) Tool: Short Meditation & Improved Ability to Refocus (01:07:40) Tool: Yoga Nidra, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) & Defocus Periods(01:12:13) Tool: Hypnosis & Focus/Deep Relaxation States(01:16:07) Optimal Time of Day to Use Specific Tools(01:16:46) Tool: Overt Visual Focus & Deliberate Gaze (01:20:42) Covert Visual Focus; Deliberate Gaze Warm-Up & Focused Work (01:24:43) Tool: Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids (01:27:28) Tool: Creatine Monohydrate (01:29:10) Tool: Alpha-GPC & Acetylcholine, Increased Risk of Stroke? & Garlic (01:33:52) Tool: L-Tyrosine Supplements & Food(01:34:47) Combining & Choosing Focus Tools, Variability (01:36:50) ADHD Prescriptions, Training Neural Circuits, Maintenance & Reduced Dosage(01:39:19) Tool: Optimal Order Approaching Focus Tools, Prescriptions & Dependency (01:42:56) Tool: Phenylethylamine & Dopamine(01:44:50) Tool: Other Supplements to Enhance Dopamine, Epinephrine & Acetylcholine (01:46:46) Behavioral, Nutrition & Supplement Tools for Focus(01:49:12) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network NewsletterTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • Recently I had the pleasure of hosting two live events, one in Seattle, WA and one in Portland, OR. These events were part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of each evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Portland, OR.
    Attend The Brain Body Contract Live Events
    Los Angeles, CA: October 16, 2022
    New York, NY: November 9, 2022
    https://hubermanlab.com/tour
    Thank you to our sponsors
    Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) The Brain Body Contract Q&A
    (00:01:08) Momentous Supplements, InsideTracker
    (00:01:36) Upcoming Live Events: Los Angeles & New York
    (00:02:16) What Are the Current Best Practices for Post-TBIs? Thoughts on Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy?
    (00:08:03) Are There Effective Ways to Decrease Dopamine When You Get Too Much of It?
    (00:13:50) How and When to Improve Brain Plasticity if You Have 10 Minutes a Day?
    (00:17:51) How to Use Supplements to Optimize Health When Career Prevents Consistent Routines?
    (00:21:09) How Is Social Media Changing Our Brains?
    (00:25:10) What New Piece of Neurological Research Most Excites You?
    (00:28:35) Do You Believe in the Wim How Method? Does It Work? What's Happening in the Brain?
    (00:37:08) Can Red Light Therapy Help Treat Exercise Intolerance and Fatigue in Mitochondrial Disease?
    (00:40:39) Is It Possible to Over Do Ice Baths?
    (00:46:10) What Are Your Favorite Brain Hacks for Doing Hard Things?
    (00:48:25) What Do You Fear? How Do You Manage Fear?
    (00:50:05) Conclusion
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • My guest this episode is Dr. Erich Jarvis, PhD—Professor and the Head of the Laboratory of Neurogenetics of Language at Rockefeller University and Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). Dr. Jarvis’ research spans the molecular and genetic mechanisms of vocal communication, comparative genomics of speech and language across species and the relationship between speech, language and movement. We discuss the unique ability of humans (and certain animal species) to learn and communicate using complex language, including verbal speech production and the ability to interpret both written and spoken language. We also discuss the connections between language, singing and dance and why song may have evolved before language. Dr. Jarvis also explains some of the underlying biological and genetic components of stutter/speech disorders, non-verbal communication, why it's easiest to learn a language as a child and how individuals can learn multiple languages at any age. This episode ought to be of interest to everyone interested in the origins of human speech, language, music and culture and how newer technology, such as social media and texting, change our brains. 
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman
    LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Dr. Erich Jarvis & Vocal Communication
    (00:03:43) Momentous Supplements 
    (00:04:36) InsideTracker, ROKA, LMNT 
    (00:08:01) Speech vs. Language, Is There a Difference?  
    (00:10:55) Animal Communication, Hand Gestures & Language 
    (00:15:25) Vocalization & Innate Language, Evolution of Modern Language    
    (00:21:10) Humans & Songbirds, Critical Periods, Genetics, Speech Disorders 
    (00:27:11) Innate Predisposition to Learn Language, Cultural Hybridization
    (00:31:34) Genes for Speech & Language
    (00:35:49) Learning New or Multiple Languages, Critical Periods, Phonemes 
    (00:41:39) AG1 (Athletic Greens) 
    (00:42:52) Semantic vs. Effective Communication, Emotion, Singing
    (00:47:32) Singing, Link Between Dancing & Vocal Learning 
    (00:52:55) Motor Theory of Vocal Learning, Dance 
    (00:55:03) Music & Dance, Emotional Bonding, Genetic Predispositions
    (01:04:11) Facial Expressions & Language, Innate Expressions
    (01:09:35) Reading & Writing 
    (01:15:13) Writing by Hand vs. Typing, Thoughts & Writing
    (01:20:58) Stutter, Neurogenetics, Overcome Stutter, Conversations
    (01:26:58) Modern Language Evolution: Texting, Social Media & the Future
    (01:36:26) Movement: The Link to Cognitive Growth 
    (01:40:21) Comparative Genomics, Earth Biogenome Project, Genome Ark, Conservation
    (01:48:24) Evolution of Skin & Fur Color
    (01:51:22) Dr. Erich Jarvis, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Instagram, Twitter Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • In this episode, I discuss the physiological effects that drinking alcohol has on the brain and body at different levels of consumption and over time. I also describe genetic differences that predispose certain individuals to alcoholism, binge and habit-drinking. I explain alcohol metabolism in simple terms and how it effectively acts as a poison, leading to cellular stress and damage. I then explain that it impacts neuronal function and changes our thinking and behavior – hallmarks of inebriation. I also discuss how alcohol consumption of different amounts impacts inflammation, stress, neurodegeneration, and cancer risk and negatively impacts the gut microbiome, brain thickness, hormone balance, mood and feelings of motivation. Additionally, I discuss the biology of hangovers and describe science-based strategies to mitigate the severity of a hangover. Since alcohol is one of the most widely consumed recreational substances, this episode ought to be of relevance to everyone. Indeed, even low-to-moderate alcohol consumption negatively impacts the brain and body in direct ways. The goal of this episode is to help people make informed decisions about their alcohol consumption that are in keeping with their mental and physical health goals. Thank you to our sponsorsAG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/hubermanLevels: https://levels.link/hubermanEight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/hubermanROKA: https://www.roka.com/hubermanSupplements from Momentoushttps://www.livemomentous.com/hubermanFor the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.comTimestamps(00:00:00) Effects of Alcohol Consumption(00:02:25) Momentous Supplements (00:03:19) Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption & Neurodegeneration (00:06:52) Levels, Eight Sleep, ROKA (00:10:46) Historical Context & Uses of Alcohol (00:13:28) Alcohol Metabolism, “Empty Calories” (00:18:23) Inebriation: Top-Down Inhibition, Impulsivity & Memory Formation(00:24:23) Long-Lasting Effects & Impulsivity, Neuroplasticity & Reversibility (00:27:55) Food & Alcohol Absorption(00:30:07) Alcohol & Serotonin, SSRIs & Depression, Risk for Alcoholism, Blackouts(00:37:39) Predisposition for Alcoholism; Chronic Consumption, Cortisol & Stress(00:44:53) AG1 (Athletic Greens)(00:46:07) Genetic Predisposition for Alcoholism, Consuming Alcohol Too Young(00:52:27) Gut-Liver-Brain Axis: Alcohol, Gut Microbiome, Inflammation & Leaky Gut (00:59:46) Tool: Improving/Replenishing Gut Microbiome (01:02:44) Reducing Alcohol Consumption & Stress (01:04:25) Hangover: Alcohol & Sleep, Anxiety, Headache(01:12:11) Hangover Recovery, Adrenaline & Deliberate Cold Exposure (01:17:16) Hangover Recovery, Dehydration & Electrolytes(01:20:45) Types of Alcohol & Hangover Severity, Congeners (01:25:25) Alcohol Tolerance, Dopamine & Serotonin, Pleasure-Pain Balance (01:33:36) Are There Any Positive Effects of Alcohol?, Resveratrol (01:35:42) Alcohol & Brain Thickness (01:37:11) Alcohol & Cancer Risk: DNA Methylation, Breast Cancer Risk (01:44:31) Mitigating Cancer Risk, Folate, B Vitamins (01:46:54) Alcohol & Pregnancy, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (01:50:58) Hormones: Testosterone & Estrogen Balance(01:55:09) Negative Effects of Alcohol Consumption (01:58:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab ClipsTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • Recently I had the pleasure of hosting two live events, one in Seattle, WA and one in Portland, OR. These events were part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of each evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Seattle, WA.
    Attend The Brain Body Contract Live Events
    Los Angeles, CA: October 16, 2022
    New York, NY: November 9, 2022
    https://hubermanlab.com/tour
    Thank you to our sponsors
    Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) The Brain Body Contract Q&A
    (00:01:07) Momentous Supplements, InsideTracker
    (00:01:35) Upcoming Live Events: Los Angeles & New York
    (00:02:16) What Is Your Most-Used Protocol?
    (00:04:12) Should You Vary Wake-Up Time Seasonally?
    (00:06:05) Why Is My Drive Depleted Upon Waking-Up?
    (00:08:42) What Are Your Favorite/Most Impactful Books?
    (00:12:08) What Excites You About the Future of Mental Health Treatment?
    (00:17:25) What Is the Biggest Area for Performance Enhancement?
    (00:21:44) Can You Still Do a Kickflip?
    (00:22:32) Tips on How to Improve Memory
    (00:24:54) How Do You Manage Social Media Addiction?
    (00:27:43) Were You Nervous Tonight/ How Did You Prepare?
    (00:29:10) Is Learning from Failure Equal to Learning from Success?
    (00:32:23) When Are You Going to Start Training Jiu-Jitsu?
    (00:33:28) Discuss the Supplements You Take
    (00:36:29) Advice or Protocols to Improve Learning & Retention
    (00:38:42) What Exciting Research/Work are You Doing?
    (00:40:22) How Does Dopamine Factor into Neuroplasticity?
    (00:43:12) What Advice Do You Have for Future Scientists?
    (00:46:47) Is Age 66 Too Old for Neuroplasticity & Learning?
    (00:48:00) How Do You Read Research Papers?
    (00:49:40) What is Your Favorite Condiment?
    (00:50:10) Most Important Takeaway from Your ADHD Research?
    (00:52:58) What Future Episodes Are in the Pipeline?
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • My guest this episode is Dr. Peter Attia, M.D., who trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Attia is host of The Drive podcast and is a world expert on behavioral approaches, nutritional interventions, supplementation and pharmacological techniques to improve lifespan, healthspan and athletic performance. We discuss how best to evaluate your health status using routine blood work, body scans and regular tests of physical strength and endurance. Dr. Attia explains what he uses with his patients to “back-cast” their health goals as a way to design their exercise and nutritional programs. We also discuss hormone modulation and replacement therapy for both men and women. We explain how cholesterol and related factors contribute to cardiovascular disease risk and how to monitor and mitigate that risk. Dr. Attia details various supplementation, nutrition, exercise and prescription approaches useful to people in every decade of life to improve vitality, reduce their risk of disease and increase the number of years sustaining peak cognitive and physical health. 
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Assessing Health Status & Improving Vitality 
    (00:02:51) Momentous Supplements 
    (00:03:46) Thesis, InsideTracker, Helix Sleep 
    (00:07:29) Lifespan: Bloodwork & Biomarkers Testing, The “4 Horseman of Disease” 
    (00:11:51) Healthspan: Functional Testing, Cognitive & Emotional States 
    (00:13:59) Blood Testing: Best Frequency 
    (00:16:01) DEXA Scan: Lean Mass & Fat, Bone Mineral Density & Osteoporosis 
    (00:22:33) Bone Mineral Density & Age-Related Decline, Strength Training, Corticosteroids 
    (00:29:24) Osteopenia & Osteoporosis Diagnosis, Strength Training
    (00:31:03) AG1 (Athletic Greens)
    (00:32:16) Back-casting: Defining Your “Marginal Decade” 
    (00:38:31) All-Cause Mortality: Smoking, Strength, VO2 max 
    (00:44:43) Attia’s Rule of Supplementation, “Centenarian Decathlete” Physical Goals
    (00:49:24) Importance of Exercise, Brain Health, MET hours 
    (00:55:23) Nicotine & Cognitive Focus
    (01:03:12) Menstruation, PMS & Menopause 
    (01:10:10) Hormone Replacement Therapy, Menopause & Breast Cancer Risk
    (01:22:06) Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone Therapies in Women
    (01:26:35) Hormone Replacement Therapy in Men, SHBG & Testosterone, Insulin
    (01:37:23) Clomid, Pituitary, Testosterone & Cholesterol, Anastrozole, HCG
    (01:47:46) Fadogia Agrestis, Supplements, Rapamycin 
    (01:52:06) Testosterone Replacement Therapy & Fertility 
    (01:59:26) Total Testosterone vs. Free Testosterone
    (02:02:51) Cholesterol & Dietary Cholesterol, Saturated Fat, LDL & HDL, Apolipoprotein B
    (02:17:42) Apolipoprotein B, Diet, Statins & Other Cholesterol Prescriptions 
    (02:25:15) Cardiovascular Disease, Age & Disease Risk 
    (02:28:53) Peptides, Stem Cells, BPC157, PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma), Injury Rehabilitation 
    (02:37:40) Metabolomics & Exercise 
    (02:40:44) GLP-1 & Weight Loss 
    (02:47:06) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • In this episode, I describe a comprehensive toolkit consisting of behavioral and supplement-based tools that you can customize to enhance the quality, duration and impact of your sleep. This has an enormous positive impact on your overall health and daytime functioning, brain, hormones and immune system. I teach you how to effectively harness light (and darkness), temperature, food, exercise, caffeine, supplements, and digital devices in order to fall asleep faster, stay deeply asleep longer and overall, and achieve better quality sleep. I also describe how these tools can be modified to recover quickly from a poor night’s sleep, jet lag or bouts of shift work. Given that sleep is the foundation of all mental health, physical health and performance, this episode should benefit everyone as it provides an essential toolkit of science-supported, low- to zero-cost strategies that can be tailored to optimize your sleep routine.Thank you to our sponsorsAG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/hubermanInsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/hubermanEight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/hubermanLMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/hubermanSupplements from Momentoushttps://www.livemomentous.com/hubermanFor the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.comTimestamps(00:00:00) Tools to Optimize Sleep(00:03:02) Momentous Supplements(00:04:16) InsideTracker, Eight Sleep, LMNT(00:08:24) Factors to Control Circadian Rhythm & Sleep(00:15:10) Morning Tool: Morning Sunlight Viewing, Cortisol(00:20:44) Morning Sunlight: Circadian Rhythm, Artificial Lights, Cloudy Days(00:26:18) Evaluating Light in Environment, Compensating for Missed Morning Light(00:29:26) AG1 (Athletic Greens)(00:30:46) Morning Tools: Temperature & Deliberate Cold Exposure, Exercise(00:34:58) Timing Caffeine, “Afternoon Crash,” Exercise(00:40:08) Timing Eating, Alertness & Circadian Rhythm(00:45:20) 3 Daily Critical Periods(00:46:49) Afternoons: Naps, Deep Relaxation (NSDR, Self-Hypnosis), Exercise & Body Temperature, Caffeine(00:51:59) Afternoon Tools: Viewing Sunlight in Late Afternoon, Evening Light(00:56:45) Evening/Night Tools: Overhead Artificial Lights, Light Sensitivity(01:04:40) Evening Tools: Hot Bath/Sauna, Temperature & Sleeping Environment(01:09:40) Alcohol, THC & Reduced Sleep Quality; CBD, Anxiety & Falling Asleep(01:11:45) Sleep Supplements: Magnesium Threonate, Apigenin & Theanine(01:16:34) Melatonin Supplementation (Caution)(01:17:44) Additional Sleep Supplements: GABA, Glycine, Myo-Inositol & Anxiety(01:20:08) Falling Back Asleep: Reveri App, NSDR, Yoga Nidra(01:22:55) Staying Asleep: Eye Masks, Ear Plugs, Elevating Feet(01:24:58) Tool: Sleep Apnea & Nasal Breathing(01:28:20) Sleep Schedule Consistency, Weekends, Compensatory Sleep & Caffeine(01:31:14) Tools: Temperature Minimum & Jet Lag, Shift Work & Red Lights(01:37:38) Behavioral Tools for 3 Daily Critical Periods(01:39:26) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Huberman Lab Clips, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network NewsletterTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • My guest this episode is Dr. Emily Balcetis, PhD, Professor of Psychology at New York University (NYU). Dr. Balcetis’ research focuses on how our perception of the world, particularly our visual perceptions, influences our level and persistence of motivation, how we conceptualize goals, actual goal achievement, and our emotional state as we pursue goals. Dr. Balcetis explains how to best visualize and overcome challenges in pursuit of larger, complex goals. We also discuss the science of how to define goals and intermediate milestones, overcome obstacles, and effectively track progress. This episode highlights science-based, immediately actionable tools that anyone can use to set and achieve physical and/or cognitive goals more effectively.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman 
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    Levels: https://levels.link/huberman
    ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Dr. Emily Balcetis, Visualization of Goals & Motivation
    (00:03:24) Momentous Supplements
    (00:04:38) Thesis, Levels, ROKA
    (00:08:08) Vision & Motivation
    (00:11:37) Tool: Narrowing Visual Focus & Improving Exercise
    (00:21:39) Adjusting Visual Attention & Perceived Fatigue
    (00:25:14) Tool: Visual Focus “Spotlight”
    (00:27:57) Tool: Goal Gradient Hypothesis, Visual Spotlight to Increase Effort
    (00:33:38) AG1 (Athletic Greens)
    (00:35:00) Defining Goals vs. Accomplishing Goals, Dream Boards & Goal Lists 
    (00:41:28) Tool: How to Setting Better Goals & Identify Obstacles
    (00:46:38) Vision is Unique, Challenging the Visual System, Realistic Goals & Micro-Goals
    (00:57:12) Do Fit People View the World Differently?, States of Body & Visual Experiences
    (01:05:54) Caffeine, Stimulants, Visual Windows & Motivation
    (01:10:13) Tools: Goal Setting & Cognitive (Non-Physical) Goals, Data Collection
    (01:21:54) Year in Review & Memory
    (01:26:32) Visual Tools & Mental Health, Depression & Visual Priming
    (01:31:33) Focusing Attention & Increasing Visual Detail/Resolution
    (01:36:12) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Momentous Supplements
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • In this episode, I explain the biology, symptoms, causes and types of bipolar disorder (sometimes called bipolar depression). I discuss neuroplasticity and how the brain normally regulates mood, energy, and perceptions; then, I contrast that with the biology of bipolar disorder, which is characterized by extremes of energy and mood, e.g., mania and depression. I outline the mechanisms through which bipolar disorder manifests in the brain, including deficits of interoception and reduced connections between the parietal and limbic systems. I also outline how treatment options (such as lithium) work in part through homeostatic plasticity.’ I discuss not only lithium but also the treatment of bipolar with ketamine, different talk therapies, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and nutraceuticals, including Omega-3 and Inositol supplementation. This episode should interest anyone who has or knows someone with bipolar disorder and, more broadly, those interested in how the brain works to create a balance between thoughts, energy levels, focus, and mood.Thank you to our sponsorsInsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/hubermanROKA: https://roka.com/hubermanBlinkist: https://www.blinkist.com/hubermanSupplements from Momentoushttps://www.livemomentous.com/hubermanFor the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.comTimestamps(00:00:00) Bipolar Disorder(00:02:23) Momentous Supplements(00:03:42) Tool: Appetite Suppression & GLP-1, Parallel Pathways, Yerba Mate(00:10:23) InsideTracker, ROKA, Blinkist(00:14:24) Prevalence & Severity of Bipolar Disorder(00:16:30) Bipolar Disorder I, Diagnostic Criteria of Mania(00:28:58) Bipolar Disorder II, Individual Variability(00:33:07) Bipolar I vs. Bipolar II: Manic, Depressive & Symptom-Free States(00:38:20) Consequences of Bipolar Disorder, Heritability(00:46:53) Bipolar Disorder vs. Borderline Personality Disorder(00:51:51) Mania & Depression, Negative Impacts(00:53:06) History of Lithium Treatment(01:02:44) Lithium Treatment & Side-Effects(01:05:05) Effects of Lithium: BDNF, Anti-inflammatory & Neuroprotection(01:10:10) Neural Circuits of Bipolar Disorder, Interoception, Hyper- vs. Hypoactivity(01:17:11) Neural States & Mania, Parietal Lobe & Limbic System(01:22:58) Homeostatic Plasticity, Synaptic Scaling, Lithium & Ketamine(01:36:00) Talk Therapies: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Family-Focused Therapy, Interpersonal & Social Rhythm Therapy(01:43:18) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)(01:48:01) Psylocibin, Cannabis(01:51:50) Lifestyle Support, Supplements: Inositol & Omega-3 Fatty Acids(02:03:31) Omega-3s, Membrane Fluidity & Neuroplasticity(02:06:44) Mania, Creativity & Occupations(02:15:33) Bipolar Disorder: Diagnosis, Neural Circuits & Treatment(02:17:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network NewsletterTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • My guest this episode is Dr. Charles Zuker, PhD, Professor of Biochemistry, Molecular Biophysics and Neuroscience at Columbia University and an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Dr. Zuker is the world’s leading expert in the biology of taste, thirst and craving. His laboratory explores the mechanisms of taste perception, focusing on how our conscious and unconscious processing of specific foods and nutrients guide our actions and behaviors. We discuss the neural circuits of taste, the “gut-brain axis,” the basis of food cravings and the key difference between wanting (craving) and liking (perceiving) sugar. We also explore how taste perception relates to specific food satiety, thirst, to our emotions, and expectation. We also consider how sugar containing and highly-processed foods can hijack the natural balance of the taste and digestive systems. Dr. Zuker provides a true masterclass in the biology of taste and perception that ought to be of interest to anyone curious about how the brain works, our motivated behaviors and the neural, chemical perceptual aspects of the mind.Thank you to our sponsorsThesis: https://takethesis.com/hubermanROKA: https://roka.com/hubermanHelix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/hubermanSupplements from Momentoushttps://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.Timestamps(00:00:00) Dr. Charles Zuker & Taste Perception(00:03:05) Momentous Supplements(00:04:35) Thesis, ROKA, Helix Sleep(00:08:35) Sensory Detection vs. Sensory Perception(00:11:48) Individual Variations within Perception, Color(00:16:20) Perceptions & Behaviors(00:20:19) The 5 Taste Modalities(00:26:18) Aversive Taste, Bitter Taste(00:28:00) Survival-Based & Evolutionary Reasons for Taste Modalities, Taste vs. Flavor(00:30:14) Additional Taste Modalities: Fat & Metallic Perception(00:34:02) Tongue “Taste Map,” Taste Buds & Taste Receptors (00:39:34) Burning Your Tongue & Perception(00:42:54) The “Meaning” of Taste Stimuli, Sweet vs. Bitter, Valence(00:51:55) Positive vs. Negative Neuronal Activation & Behavior(00:56:16) Acquired Tastes, Conditioned Taste Aversion (01:01:44) Olfaction (Smell) vs. Taste, Changing Tastes over One’s Lifetime(01:09:14) Integration of Odor & Taste, Influence on Behavior & Emotion(01:17:26) Sensitization to Taste, Internal State Modulation, Salt(01:24:05) Taste & Saliva: The Absence of Taste(01:28:10) Sugar & Reward Pleasure Centers; Gut-Brain Axis, Anticipatory Response(01:36:23) Vagus Nerve(01:43:09) Insatiable Sugar Appetite, Liking vs. Wanting, Gut-Brain Axis(01:52:03) Tool: Sugar vs. Artificial Sweeteners, Curbing Appetite(01:54:06) Cravings & Gut-Brain Axis (01:57:30) Nutrition, Gut-Brain Axis & Changes in Behavior(02:01:53) Fast vs. Slow Signaling & Reinforcement, Highly Processed Foods (02:10:38) Favorite Foods: Enjoyment, Sensation & Context(02:15:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network NewsletterTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • In this episode, I explain the biological roles of the four major neuromodulators—dopamine, epinephrine (aka adrenaline), serotonin, and acetylcholine—and describe how these neuromodulators impact a wide variety of mental states and behaviors, including focus, creativity, motivation, drive, learning, alertness, mood, relationships, and feelings of well-being. Then, with that foundational understanding in mind, I describe a potent toolkit of science-supported behavioral, nutrition, and supplementation tools that can be used to increase baseline levels of individual neuromodulators and that can be modified for specific goals. This episode summarizes low-or-no-cost, actionable, science-based tools that can benefit anyone in order to enhance their levels of brain chemicals and improve mental health, physical health, and performance.Thank you to our sponsorsAG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/hubermanThesis: https://takethesis.com/hubermanInsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/hubermanSupplements from Momentoushttps://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.Timestamps(00:00:00) Optimizing Neurochemicals to Improve Health(00:03:40) Momentous Supplements(00:05:30) Sleep & Maintaining Healthy Metabolism(00:09:52) Tools: How to Wake Up Earlier, Night Owls(00:19:32) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, InsideTracker(00:22:05) Nervous System Overview(00:31:32) How Neuromodulators Work (00:34:24) Baseline Neuromodulator Levels, 3 Daily Phases(00:42:15) Hormones Modulate Neuromodulators(00:52:12) The 4 Major Types of Neuromodulators(01:01:45) Tool Kit 1: Increase Baseline Dopamine & Focus(01:08:52) Tyrosine-rich Foods & Dopamine(01:10:59) Dopamine Supplementation: Mucuna Pruriens, L-tyrosine & Phenylethylamine(01:16:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure & Dopamine(01:21:12) Tool Kit 2: Additional Tips to Increase Dopamine(01:26:10) Tool Kit 3: Increase Epinephrine (Adrenaline) & Alertness(01:34:34) Tool Kit 4: Increase Acetylcholine & Attention/Learning; Choline-rich Foods(01:37:29) Acetylcholine Supplements: Nicotine, Alpha GPC, Huperzine (01:44:47) Tool Kit 5: Behavior to Increase Focus & Acetylcholine(01:46:56) Tool Kit 6: Behavior to Increase Serotonin & Feelings of Well-being (01:50:51) Tools: Tryptophan-Rich Foods & Serotonin(01:53:31) Tools: Serotonin Supplements: Cissus Quadrangularis, 5-HTP, Myo-inositol(02:02:14) Use the Neurochemical Toolkit to Meet Individual Goals(02:06:44) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network NewsletterTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • My guest this episode is Jeff Cavaliere, MSPT CSCS, a world-class physical therapist and Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist. Jeff has coached athletes ranging from novice to professional and has taught science-based physical training protocols to tens of millions of everyday people via his enormously clear and actionable online programs. Jeff is a true expert on proper resistance and cardiovascular training, injury prevention and rehabilitation and has extensive knowledge on proper form, posture, nutrition and supplementation. We discuss how to best design and optimize a physical training program to achieve your specific goals. We also discuss how to build and leverage mental focus during workouts, when and how to stretch, pain management and enhancing workout recovery and sleep, and how to personalize your training and nutrition program over time. Jeff’s knowledge and science-based approach ought to benefit everyone in reaching their desired fitness, aesthetic and overall health goals.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman
    ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Jeff Cavaliere, Physical Training
    (00:03:27) Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Eight Sleep, ROKA
    (00:08:38) Tool: A Fitness Plan for General Health
    (00:13:27) Tool: Optimizing Body Part Training Splits
    (00:20:12) Two-a-Day Training
    (00:22:33) Cardiovascular Conditioning, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) & Skills
    (00:28:24) Tool: Mind-Muscle Connection, The Cavaliere Cramp Contraction Test
    (00:35:05) “Muscularity” & Resting Tone
    (00:41:31) Tool: Muscle Recovery & Soreness, Grip Strength
    (00:50:39) Sleep & Sleep Position
    (00:57:24) Active (Dynamic) vs. Passive Stretching, Timing & Healing Muscle
    (01:07:23) Tool: Jumping Rope
    (01:12:56) Internal & External Rotation, Upright Row vs. High Pull
    (01:24:27) Back Pain Relief & Medial Glutes, Body Pain & Origins
    (01:37:39) Tool: Properly Holding Weights & Deepening Grip
    (01:43:54) Tool: Physical Recovery, Heat & Cold Exposure
    (01:47:19) Tool: Record Keeping for Training Performance & Rest Time
    (01:51:47) Nutrition Principles & Consistency, Processed Foods & Sugar
    (02:00:15) Tool: “Plate Eating”: Protein, Fibrous & Starchy Carbohydrates
    (02:11:25) Training in Men vs. Women, Training for Kids & Adolescents
    (02:18:05) Tool: Pre- and Post-Training Nutrition
    (02:26:30) Intensity & Training Consistency
    (02:29:53) AthleanX, Jesse Laico & Fitness Journeys
    (02:38:27) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • In this episode, I explain the biology and psychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)—a prevalent and debilitating condition. I also discuss the efficacy and mechanisms behind OCD treatments—both behavioral and pharmacologic as well as holistic and combination treatments and new emerging treatments, including directed brain stimulation. I explain the neural circuitry underlying repetitive “thought-action loops” and why in OCD, the compulsive actions merely make the obsessions even stronger. I review cognitive-behavioral therapies like exposure therapy and SSRIs, holistic approaches, and nutraceuticals, detailing the efficacy of each approach and what science says about how to combine and sequence treatments. I describe an often effective approach for treating OCD where clinicians use cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to deliberately bring patients into states of high anxiety while encouraging them to suppress compulsive actions in order to help them learn to overcome repetitious thought/action cycles. This episode should interest anyone with OCD, anyone who knows someone with OCD or OCPD, and more generally, those interested in how the brain works to control thoughts and actions, whether those thoughts are intrusive or not.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
    (00:03:01) Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, Eight Sleep
    (00:08:28) What is OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder?
    (00:11:18) OCD: Major Incidence & Severity
    (00:15:10) Categories of OCD
    (00:21:33) Anxiety: Linking Obsessions & Compulsions
    (00:27:33) OCD & Familial Heredity
    (00:29:10) Biological Mechanisms of OCD, Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loops
    (00:39:36) Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loop & OCD
    (00:46:39) Clinical OCD Diagnosis, Y-BOCS Index
    (00:51:38) OCD & Fear, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) & Exposure Therapy
    (01:01:56) Unique Characteristics of CBT/Exposure Therapy in OCD Treatment
    (01:10:18) CBT/Exposure Therapy & Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
    (01:22:30) Considerations with SSRIs & Prescription Drug Treatments
    (01:25:17) Serotonin & Cognitive Flexibility, Psilocybin Studies
    (01:31:50) Neuroleptics & Neuromodulators
    (01:36:09) OCD & Cannabis, THC & CBD
    (01:39:29) Ketamine Treatment
    (01:41:43) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
    (01:46:22) Cannabis CBD & Focus
    (01:47:50) Thoughts Are Not Actions
    (01:51:27) Hormones, Cortisol, DHEA, Testosterone & GABA
    (02:00:55) Holistic Treatments: Mindfulness Meditation & OCD
    (02:03:28) Nutraceuticals & Supplements: Myo-Inositol, Glycine
    (02:09:45) OCD vs. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
    (02:20:53) Superstitions, Compulsions & Obsessions
    (02:31:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • My guest is Ido Portal, the world’s foremost expert on human movement. Ido has spent a lifetime studying, combining and evolving elements from an enormous range of martial arts, dance genres, athletic endeavors, and science, to develop a unified theory and practice of movement called “The Ido Portal Method.” Here we discuss all things movement, including the role of the nervous system, reflexive versus deliberate movement patterns, and the link between emotions and awareness in movement. We also discuss learning and neuroplasticity, the mind-body connection and how movement itself can be leveraged toward expanding other types of skills- cognitive, creative and otherwise. As one of the most sought out teachers of movement alive today, the knowledge Ido shares in this conversation can benefit everyone—children, adults, athletes, dancers, clinicians and trainers and the everyday person.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    ROKA: https://www.roka.com - code "huberman"
    Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Ido Portal, Movement & Movement Practice
    (00:03:30) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep
    (00:07:49) What is Movement?
    (00:10:56) Movement & the Body-Mind Connection
    (00:14:47) Entry Points to Movement
    (00:18:08) Early Education in Movement: Awareness, Play & Examination
    (00:21:19) Stillness, Movement & the Environment, Playfulness
    (00:31:34) Unique Postures, Types of Movement, Contents vs. Containers
    (00:40:50) Discomfort: Marker of Movement, Failures & Learning
    (00:47:05) Movement Diversity, Squat Challenge, Injury, Movement Evolution
    (00:56:36) Animal & Human Movements, Gain & Change
    (01:02:04) Core Movement, Emotion & Memory, Spinal Waves, Evolution
    (01:12:39) Song, Dance & Complex Language, Movement as Language, Consilience
    (01:21:39) Movement Culture, Community, Collective Knowledge, Wild & Wise
    (01:26:36) Potential for Movement, “Humming”
    (01:32:18) Instructiveness vs Permissiveness, Degrees of Freedom
    (01:35:50) Variety, Diversity & Virtuosity
    (01:38:06) Vision & Movement, Focus & Awareness, Panoramic Awareness
    (01:48:28) Hearing & Movement
    (01:52:43) Walking Gaits
    (01:56:55) Playful Variability & Evolution, Improvisation & Openness
    (02:03:05) Reactivity & Personal Space, Touch & Proximity to Others, Play & Discomfort
    (02:18:13) Visualization & Experience, Feedback
    (02:20:14) Linear Movement & Movement Investigation, Examination
    (02:31:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • In this episode, I explain the science behind limb range of motion and flexibility and how to increase them by using science-supported protocols. Flexibility is crucial for physical movements and can help prevent injuries, decrease inflammation, modulate physical and mental pain, impact exercise recovery speed and even potentially slow the progression of certain diseases. I explain the biology of flexibility, including the specific neural mechanisms that sense stretch and load (i.e., tension) on the muscles and limbs, as well as how specific brain regions like the insula combine those signals to ultimately control limb range of movement. I also provide science-based stretching and “micro-stretching” protocols that reliably improve limb flexibility with the minimum necessary time investment. I review all the details of those stretching protocols: how often to do them, for how long, their timing relative to other exercises, sets, the time between sets, measuring progress and more. All people, physically active or not, should benefit from the information and tools described in this episode.Thank you to our sponsorsAG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/hubermanThesis: https://takethesis.com/hubermanInsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/hubermanSupplements from Momentoushttps://www.livemomentous.com/hubermanFor the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.comTimestamps(00:00:00) Flexibility & Stretching(00:02:57) Sponsors(00:07:22) Innate Flexibility(00:09:23) Movement: Nervous System, Connective Tissue & Muscle; Range of Motion(00:17:51) Golgi Tendon Organs (GTOs) & Load Sensing Mechanisms(00:20:20) Decreased Flexibility & Aging(00:22:38) Insula, Body Discomfort & Choice(00:30:02) von Economo Neurons, Parasympathetic Activation & Relaxation(00:42:00) Muscle Anatomy & Cellular ‘Lengthening,’ Range of Motion(00:47:16) Tool: Protocol - Antagonistic Muscles, Pushing vs. Pulling Exercises(00:51:57) Types of Stretching: Dynamic, Ballistic, Static & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation)(00:59:36) Tool: Increasing Range of Motion, Static Stretching Protocol, Duration(01:05:56) Tool: Static Stretching Protocol & Frequency(01:13:55) Tool: Effective Stretching Protocol(01:17:12) Tool: Warming Up & Stretching(01:19:17) Limb Range of Motion & General Health Benefits(01:25:30) PNF Stretching, Golgi Tendon Organs & Autogenic Inhibition(01:31:23) Tool: Anderson Protocol & End Range of Motion, Feeling the Stretch(01:32:50) Tool: Effectiveness, Low Intensity Stretching, “Micro-Stretching”(01:41:33) Tool: Should you Stretch Before or After Other Exercises?(01:45:41) Stretching, Relaxation, Inflammation & Disease(01:51:37) Insula & Discomfort, Pain Tolerance & Yoga(02:00:36) Tools: Summary of Stretching Protocols(02:03:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network NewsletterTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • My guest this episode is Dr. Paul Conti, M.D., a psychiatrist and expert in treating trauma, personality disorders and psychiatric illnesses and challenges of various kinds. Dr. Conti earned his MD at Stanford and did his residency at Harvard Medical School. He now runs the Pacific Premiere Group—a clinical practice helping people heal and grow from trauma and other life challenges. We discuss trauma: what it is and its far-reaching effects on the mind and body, as well as the best treatment approaches for trauma. We also explore how to choose a therapist and how to get the most out of therapy, as well as how to do self-directed therapy. We discuss the positive and negative effects of antidepressants, ADHD medications, alcohol, cannabis, and the therapeutic potential of psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD), ketamine and MDMA. This episode is must listen for anyone seeking or already doing therapy, processing trauma, and/or considering psychoactive medication. Both patients and practitioners ought to benefit from the information.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Dr. Paul Conti, Trauma & Recovery 
    (00:02:30) Sponsors
    (00:07:00) Defining Trauma 
    (00:14:05) Guilt & Shame, Origins of Negative Emotions
    (00:21:38) Repeating Trauma, the Repetition Compulsion 
    (00:28:23) How to Deal with Trauma & Negative Emotions/Arousal 
    (00:37:17) Processing Trauma, Do You Always Need a Therapist?
    (00:45:30) Internal Self-talk, Punishing Narratives & Negative Fantasies 
    (00:51:10) Short-Term Coping Mechanisms vs. Long-Term Change
    (00:53:22) Tools: Processing Trauma on Your Own, Journaling 
    (00:57:00) Sublimination of Traumatic Experiences 
    (01:02:34) Tool: Finding a Good Therapist 
    (01:07:20) Optimizing the Therapy Process, Frequency, Intensity  
    (01:14:51) Tool: Self-Awareness of Therapy Needs, Mismatch of Needs
    (00:16:35) Self-talk & Journaling, Talking to Trusted Individuals 
    (01:19:00) Prescription Drugs & Treating Trauma, Antidepressants, Treating Core Issues  
    (01:28:35) Short-term vs. Long-Term Use of Prescription Drugs, Antidepressants
    (01:32:18) Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & Prescription Drugs 
    (01:37:31) Negative Effects of ADHD Prescription Drugs 
    (01:40:37) Alcohol, Cannabis – Positive & Negative Effects
    (01:44:53) Psychedelics: Psylocibin & LSD, Therapeutic Uses, Trauma Recovery    
    (01:54:32) Sentience, Language, Animals  
    (01:55:48) Psychedelic Hallucinations, Trauma Recovery 
    (02:00:01) MDMA (Therapeutic Uses)
    (02:04:47) Clinical Aspects of MDMA
    (02:07:28) Language, Processing Trauma, Social Media, Societal Divisions 
    (02:15:09) Defining “Taking Care of Oneself”
    (02:21:13) Dr. Conti, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • This episode, I discuss grief and the challenges of processing losses of different kinds. I explain the biological mechanisms of grief, including how neural circuits for emotional and factual memory combine with those for love and attachment, to create feelings of absence and yearning. I discuss how grief is distinct from depression, yet why they can feel so similar. I also provide science-based tools to assist with the grieving process, including how to reframe and remap the relationship with those we have lost while still maintaining a strong emotional connection to them. I also explain the importance of having and building strong foundational psychological and biological states so that we can better cope with grief when it happens. Finally, I describe tools to adjust those states, including those for accessing sleep, managing stress and emotional swings. This episode is for those suffering from grief but also for everyone, given that we all experience grief at some point in our lives.
    We recorded this episode before the recent mass shooting tragedies in the United States. While we hope the information in this episode will be of use to anyone suffering from grief of any kind and at any time, we are also careful to acknowledge that many people require additional support and resources. For that reason, we include mention of such resources and we generally hope people will access them if needed.
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    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Grief & Bereavement 
    (00:03:44) Sponsors
    (00:08:35) Grief vs. Depression, Complicated Grief 
    (00:12:20) Stages of Grief, Individual Variation for Grieving 
    (00:16:05) Grief: Lack & Motivation, Dopamine
    (00:23:15) Three Dimensions of Relationships
    (00:29:52) Tool: Remapping Relationships
    (00:37:15) Grief, Maintaining Emotional Closeness & Remapping 
    (00:44:40) Memories of Loved Ones & Remapping Attachments 
    (00:48:04) Yearning for Loved Ones: Memories vs. Reality, Episodic Memory 
    (00:51:40) Tools: Adaptively Processing Grief, Counterfactual Thinking, Phantom Limbs
    (01:00:32) Tool: Remembering Emotional Connection & Processing Grief
    (01:04:03) Memories, Hippocampal Trace Cells & Feeling An Absence 
    (01:10:14) Yearning & Oxytocin, Individualized Grief Cycles 
    (01:18:24) Tool: Complicated Grief & Adrenaline (Epinephrine)
    (01:24:37) Sentimental Attachment to Objects  
    (01:26:13) Why do Some People Grieve More Quickly? Individual Attachment Capacity 
    (01:29:42) “Vagal Tone,” Heart Rate, Breathwork & Grief Recovery 
    (01:42:32) Complicated Grief & Cortisol Patterns
    (01:48:50) Tool: Improving Sleep & Grieving 
    (01:54:28) Tools: Grief Processing & Adaptive Recovery 
    (02:03:36) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer