Episódios

  • In this episode, I explain the biology and psychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)—a prevalent and debilitating condition. I also discuss the efficacy and mechanisms behind OCD treatments—both behavioral and pharmacologic as well as holistic and combination treatments and new emerging treatments, including directed brain stimulation. I explain the neural circuitry underlying repetitive “thought-action loops” and why in OCD, the compulsive actions merely make the obsessions even stronger. I review cognitive-behavioral therapies like exposure therapy and SSRIs, holistic approaches, and nutraceuticals, detailing the efficacy of each approach and what science says about how to combine and sequence treatments. I describe an often effective approach for treating OCD where clinicians use cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to deliberately bring patients into states of high anxiety while encouraging them to suppress compulsive actions in order to help them learn to overcome repetitious thought/action cycles. This episode should interest anyone with OCD, anyone who knows someone with OCD or OCPD, and more generally, those interested in how the brain works to control thoughts and actions, whether those thoughts are intrusive or not.
    Thank you to our sponsors
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    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
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    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
    (00:03:01) Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, Eight Sleep
    (00:08:28) What is OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder?
    (00:11:18) OCD: Major Incidence & Severity
    (00:15:10) Categories of OCD
    (00:21:33) Anxiety: Linking Obsessions & Compulsions
    (00:27:33) OCD & Familial Heredity
    (00:29:10) Biological Mechanisms of OCD, Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loops
    (00:39:36) Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loop & OCD
    (00:46:39) Clinical OCD Diagnosis, Y-BOCS Index
    (00:51:38) OCD & Fear, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) & Exposure Therapy
    (01:01:56) Unique Characteristics of CBT/Exposure Therapy in OCD Treatment
    (01:10:18) CBT/Exposure Therapy & Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
    (01:22:30) Considerations with SSRIs & Prescription Drug Treatments
    (01:25:17) Serotonin & Cognitive Flexibility, Psilocybin Studies
    (01:31:50) Neuroleptics & Neuromodulators
    (01:36:09) OCD & Cannabis, THC & CBD
    (01:39:29) Ketamine Treatment
    (01:41:43) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
    (01:46:22) Cannabis CBD & Focus
    (01:47:50) Thoughts Are Not Actions
    (01:51:27) Hormones, Cortisol, DHEA, Testosterone & GABA
    (02:00:55) Holistic Treatments: Mindfulness Meditation & OCD
    (02:03:28) Nutraceuticals & Supplements: Myo-Inositol, Glycine
    (02:09:45) OCD vs. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
    (02:20:53) Superstitions, Compulsions & Obsessions
    (02:31:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • My guest is Ido Portal, the world’s foremost expert on human movement. Ido has spent a lifetime studying, combining and evolving elements from an enormous range of martial arts, dance genres, athletic endeavors, and science, to develop a unified theory and practice of movement called “The Ido Portal Method.” Here we discuss all things movement, including the role of the nervous system, reflexive versus deliberate movement patterns, and the link between emotions and awareness in movement. We also discuss learning and neuroplasticity, the mind-body connection and how movement itself can be leveraged toward expanding other types of skills- cognitive, creative and otherwise. As one of the most sought out teachers of movement alive today, the knowledge Ido shares in this conversation can benefit everyone—children, adults, athletes, dancers, clinicians and trainers and the everyday person.
    Thank you to our sponsors
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    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Ido Portal, Movement & Movement Practice
    (00:03:30) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep
    (00:07:49) What is Movement?
    (00:10:56) Movement & the Body-Mind Connection
    (00:14:47) Entry Points to Movement
    (00:18:08) Early Education in Movement: Awareness, Play & Examination
    (00:21:19) Stillness, Movement & the Environment, Playfulness
    (00:31:34) Unique Postures, Types of Movement, Contents vs. Containers
    (00:40:50) Discomfort: Marker of Movement, Failures & Learning
    (00:47:05) Movement Diversity, Squat Challenge, Injury, Movement Evolution
    (00:56:36) Animal & Human Movements, Gain & Change
    (01:02:04) Core Movement, Emotion & Memory, Spinal Waves, Evolution
    (01:12:39) Song, Dance & Complex Language, Movement as Language, Consilience
    (01:21:39) Movement Culture, Community, Collective Knowledge, Wild & Wise
    (01:26:36) Potential for Movement, “Humming”
    (01:32:18) Instructiveness vs Permissiveness, Degrees of Freedom
    (01:35:50) Variety, Diversity & Virtuosity
    (01:38:06) Vision & Movement, Focus & Awareness, Panoramic Awareness
    (01:48:28) Hearing & Movement
    (01:52:43) Walking Gaits
    (01:56:55) Playful Variability & Evolution, Improvisation & Openness
    (02:03:05) Reactivity & Personal Space, Touch & Proximity to Others, Play & Discomfort
    (02:18:13) Visualization & Experience, Feedback
    (02:20:14) Linear Movement & Movement Investigation, Examination
    (02:31:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

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  • In this episode, I explain the science behind limb range of motion and flexibility and how to increase them by using science-supported protocols. Flexibility is crucial for physical movements and can help prevent injuries, decrease inflammation, modulate physical and mental pain, impact exercise recovery speed and even potentially slow the progression of certain diseases. I explain the biology of flexibility, including the specific neural mechanisms that sense stretch and load (i.e., tension) on the muscles and limbs, as well as how specific brain regions like the insula combine those signals to ultimately control limb range of movement. I also provide science-based stretching and “micro-stretching” protocols that reliably improve limb flexibility with the minimum necessary time investment. I review all the details of those stretching protocols: how often to do them, for how long, their timing relative to other exercises, sets, the time between sets, measuring progress and more. All people, physically active or not, should benefit from the information and tools described in this episode.Thank you to our sponsorsThesis: https://takethesis.com/hubermanInsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/hubermanEight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/hubermanSupplements from Momentoushttps://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.Timestamps(00:00:00) Flexibility & Stretching(00:02:57) Thesis, InsideTracker, Eight Sleep(00:07:22) Innate Flexibility(00:09:23) Movement: Nervous System, Connective Tissue & Muscle; Range of Motion(00:17:51) Golgi Tendon Organs (GTOs) & Load Sensing Mechanisms(00:20:20) Decreased Flexibility & Aging(00:22:38) Insula, Body Discomfort & Choice(00:30:02) von Economo Neurons, Parasympathetic Activation & Relaxation(00:42:00) Muscle Anatomy & Cellular ‘Lengthening,’ Range of Motion(00:47:16) Tool: Protocol - Antagonistic Muscles, Pushing vs. Pulling Exercises(00:51:57) Types of Stretching: Dynamic, Ballistic, Static & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation)(00:59:36) Tool: Increasing Range of Motion, Static Stretching Protocol, Duration(01:05:56) Tool: Static Stretching Protocol & Frequency(01:13:55) Tool: Effective Stretching Protocol(01:17:12) Tool: Warming Up & Stretching(01:19:17) Limb Range of Motion & General Health Benefits(01:25:30) PNF Stretching, Golgi Tendon Organs & Autogenic Inhibition(01:31:23) Tool: Anderson Protocol & End Range of Motion, Feeling the Stretch(01:32:50) Tool: Effectiveness, Low Intensity Stretching, “Micro-Stretching”(01:41:33) Tool: Should you Stretch Before or After Other Exercises?(01:45:41) Stretching, Relaxation, Inflammation & Disease(01:51:37) Insula & Discomfort, Pain Tolerance & Yoga(02:00:36) Tools: Summary of Stretching Protocols(02:03:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network NewsletterTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • My guest this episode is Dr. Paul Conti, M.D., a psychiatrist and expert in treating trauma, personality disorders and psychiatric illnesses and challenges of various kinds. Dr. Conti earned his MD at Stanford and did his residency at Harvard Medical School. He now runs the Pacific Premiere Group—a clinical practice helping people heal and grow from trauma and other life challenges. We discuss trauma: what it is and its far-reaching effects on the mind and body, as well as the best treatment approaches for trauma. We also explore how to choose a therapist and how to get the most out of therapy, as well as how to do self-directed therapy. We discuss the positive and negative effects of antidepressants, ADHD medications, alcohol, cannabis, and the therapeutic potential of psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD), ketamine and MDMA. This episode is must listen for anyone seeking or already doing therapy, processing trauma, and/or considering psychoactive medication. Both patients and practitioners ought to benefit from the information.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    Blinkist: https://www.blinkist.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Dr. Paul Conti, Trauma & Recovery 
    (00:02:30) ROKA, InsideTracker, Blinkist
    (00:07:00) Defining Trauma 
    (00:14:05) Guilt & Shame, Origins of Negative Emotions
    (00:21:38) Repeating Trauma, the Repetition Compulsion 
    (00:28:23) How to Deal with Trauma & Negative Emotions/Arousal 
    (00:37:17) Processing Trauma, Do You Always Need a Therapist?
    (00:45:30) Internal Self-talk, Punishing Narratives & Negative Fantasies 
    (00:51:10) Short-Term Coping Mechanisms vs. Long-Term Change
    (00:53:22) Tools: Processing Trauma on Your Own, Journaling 
    (00:57:00) Sublimination of Traumatic Experiences 
    (01:02:34) Tool: Finding a Good Therapist 
    (01:07:20) Optimizing the Therapy Process, Frequency, Intensity  
    (01:14:51) Tool: Self-Awareness of Therapy Needs, Mismatch of Needs
    (00:16:35) Self-talk & Journaling, Talking to Trusted Individuals 
    (01:19:00) Prescription Drugs & Treating Trauma, Antidepressants, Treating Core Issues  
    (01:28:35) Short-term vs. Long-Term Use of Prescription Drugs, Antidepressants
    (01:32:18) Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & Prescription Drugs 
    (01:37:31) Negative Effects of ADHD Prescription Drugs 
    (01:40:37) Alcohol, Cannabis – Positive & Negative Effects
    (01:44:53) Psychedelics: Psylocibin & LSD, Therapeutic Uses, Trauma Recovery    
    (01:54:32) Sentience, Language, Animals  
    (01:55:48) Psychedelic Hallucinations, Trauma Recovery 
    (02:00:01) MDMA (Therapeutic Uses)
    (02:04:47) Clinical Aspects of MDMA
    (02:07:28) Language, Processing Trauma, Social Media, Societal Divisions 
    (02:15:09) Defining “Taking Care of Oneself”
    (02:21:13) Dr. Conti, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • This episode, I discuss grief and the challenges of processing losses of different kinds. I explain the biological mechanisms of grief, including how neural circuits for emotional and factual memory combine with those for love and attachment, to create feelings of absence and yearning. I discuss how grief is distinct from depression, yet why they can feel so similar. I also provide science-based tools to assist with the grieving process, including how to reframe and remap the relationship with those we have lost while still maintaining a strong emotional connection to them. I also explain the importance of having and building strong foundational psychological and biological states so that we can better cope with grief when it happens. Finally, I describe tools to adjust those states, including those for accessing sleep, managing stress and emotional swings. This episode is for those suffering from grief but also for everyone, given that we all experience grief at some point in our lives.
    We recorded this episode before the recent mass shooting tragedies in the United States. While we hope the information in this episode will be of use to anyone suffering from grief of any kind and at any time, we are also careful to acknowledge that many people require additional support and resources. For that reason, we include mention of such resources and we generally hope people will access them if needed.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Grief & Bereavement 
    (00:03:44) Eight Sleep, InsideTracker, ROKA  
    (00:08:35) Grief vs. Depression, Complicated Grief 
    (00:12:20) Stages of Grief, Individual Variation for Grieving 
    (00:16:05) Grief: Lack & Motivation, Dopamine
    (00:23:15) Three Dimensions of Relationships
    (00:29:52) Tool: Remapping Relationships
    (00:37:15) Grief, Maintaining Emotional Closeness & Remapping 
    (00:44:40) Memories of Loved Ones & Remapping Attachments 
    (00:48:04) Yearning for Loved Ones: Memories vs. Reality, Episodic Memory 
    (00:51:40) Tools: Adaptively Processing Grief, Counterfactual Thinking, Phantom Limbs
    (01:00:32) Tool: Remembering Emotional Connection & Processing Grief
    (01:04:03) Memories, Hippocampal Trace Cells & Feeling An Absence 
    (01:10:14) Yearning & Oxytocin, Individualized Grief Cycles 
    (01:18:24) Tool: Complicated Grief & Adrenaline (Epinephrine)
    (01:24:37) Sentimental Attachment to Objects  
    (01:26:13) Why do Some People Grieve More Quickly? Individual Attachment Capacity 
    (01:29:42) “Vagal Tone,” Heart Rate, Breathwork & Grief Recovery 
    (01:42:32) Complicated Grief & Cortisol Patterns
    (01:48:50) Tool: Improving Sleep & Grieving 
    (01:54:28) Tools: Grief Processing & Adaptive Recovery 
    (02:03:36) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • My guest is Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Ph.D., Professor of Neural Science and Psychology and (soon) Dean of New York University, whose research focuses on memory, attention, brain plasticity and simple, daily habits that can be leveraged to improve learning, focus, memory and cognitive ability. We discuss the role of cardiovascular exercise, weight training, deliberate cold exposure, meditation, verbal affirmations, sleep, and other behavioral practices for enhancing learning, mood and stress management, and increasing attention span. Dr. Suzuki shares the mechanisms by which these practices change our brain in order to improve cognitive function fast and reduce age-related cognitive decline.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    Blinkist: https://www.blinkist.com/huberman
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Learning & Memory
    (00:02:50) AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker, Blinkist  
    (00:07:27) How Memories Form 
    (00:10:14) Hippocampus: Memory, Association & Imagination 
    (00:16:20) Encoding Long-Term Memory
    (00:18:48) One-Trial Memory
    (00:21:56) Tool: Foundational Habits to Enhance Brain Performance 
    (00:30:39) Exercise & Improved Memory, Making a “Big, Fat, Fluffy Hippocampus” 
    (00:39:35) Cardiovascular Exercise, BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor) 
    (00:48:48) Neurogenesis (New Neuron Production) in Adults
    (00:51:50) Effects of Exercise on Memory 
    (00:56:31) Tool: Timing Daily Exercise, Cortisol 
    (01:00:02) Age-Related Memory Loss, Daily Exercise 
    (01:05:33) Tool: Exercise Protocol for Improving Cognition 
    (01:12:17) Anticipating Exercise, Daily Habits & Behaviors  
    (01:17:09) “Every Drop of Sweat Counts” – Exercise & Cognitive Function 
    (01:20:58) Positive Affirmations & Mood 
    (01:27:28) Meditation & Cognitive Performance 
    (01:32:27) How Meditation Works, Focusing on the Present
    (01:37:14) Tool: Strategies to Increase Attention 
    (01:42:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • This episode I explain the mechanisms by which different types of memories are established in our brain and how to leverage the amount and timing of key neurochemicals and hormones, such as adrenaline (aka epinephrine) and cortisol, to improve your learning and memory abilities. I describe multiple science-based protocols to do this, including repetition, caffeine, emotional states, deliberate cold exposure, sleep, meditation, and the role of vision, including taking “mental snapshots.” I also describe how exercise and an associated hormone, osteocalcin, can improve cognitive ability and memory formation. I also describe unique aspects and forms of memory such as photographic memory, extreme facial recognition (aka super recognition), and the phenomenon known as déjà vu.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Memory, Improving Memory  
    (00:02:45) Eight Sleep, Thesis, InsideTracker 
    (00:07:54) Sensory Stimuli, Nervous System & Encoding Memory 
    (00:11:12) Context & Memory Formation 
    (00:13:46) Tool: Repetition, Improving Learning & Memory 
    (00:17:11) Co-Activation and intensity Neuron Activation  
    (00:20:50) Different Types of Memory
    (00:25:40) Memory Formation in the Brain, Hippocampus 
    (00:28:00) Hippocampus, Role in Memory & Learning, Explicit vs. Implicit Memory
    (00:31:49) Emotion & Memory Enhancement 
    (00:36:44) Tool: Emotion Saliency & Improved Memory
    (00:41:42) Conditioned-Placed Avoidance/Preference, Adrenaline 
    (00:47:14) Adrenaline & Cortisol  
    (00:49:35) Accelerating the Repetition Curve & Adrenaline 
    (00:53:03) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Caffeine, Alpha-GPC & Stimulant Timing
    (01:00:50) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Sleep, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR)
    (01:04:48) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Deliberate Cold Exposure, Adrenaline
    (01:08:42) Timing of Adrenaline Release & Memory Formation 
    (01:12:36) Chronically High Adrenaline & Cortisol, Impact on Learning & Memory 
    (01:15:12) Adrenaline Linked with Learning: Not a New Principle 
    (01:17:25) Amygdala, Adrenaline & Memory Formation, Generalization of Memories
    (01:22:20) Tool: Cardiovascular Exercise & Neurogenesis 
    (01:27:00) Cardiovascular Exercise, Osteocalcin & Improved Hippocampal Function
    (01:29:59) Load-Bearing Exercise, Osteocalcin & Cognitive Ability 
    (01:34:41) Tool: Timing of Exercise, Learning & Memory Enhancement
    (01:37:29) Photographic Memory
    (01:38:49) “Super Recognizers,” Facial Recognition   
    (01:41:46) Tool: Mental Snapshots, Photographs & Memory Enhancement
    (01:49:12) Déjà Vu
    (01:53:24) Tool: Meditation, Daily Timing of Meditation
    (02:02:21) How to Enhance Memory 
    (02:05:51) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • This episode I describe the neural mechanisms that activate and control aggressive states and behaviors and the role of hormones—estrogen and testosterone—in mediating violent and and/or competive aggression. I also describe tools that can be used to modulate the factors that have been shown to ‘prime’ an individual for aggression, including sunlight, estrogen sensitivity, competition within social settings, and overall stress levels, and the hormone cortisol. I discuss how substances such as caffeine and alcohol can impact impulsive behaviors, and how nutrition and supplementation can be used to regulate mood and aggression. 
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    ROKA: https://www.roka.com -- code: huberman
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    See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract
    https://hubermanlab.com/tour
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Aggression, Types of Aggression
    (00:03:33) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep
    (00:08:29) Neural Circuits for Aggression, “Hydraulic Pressure Model” 
    (00:15:50) Brain Regions Controlling Aggression, Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH) 
    (00:22:14) Psychiatric Disorders & Aggression 
    (00:23:36) Stimulation of the VMH, Estrogen Receptors & Aggression
    (00:31:57) Neural Circuits Mediating Physical Acts of Aggression, Biting
    (0:35:56) Testosterone & Competitiveness/Estrogen & Aggression 
    (00:43:00) Sunlight, Melatonin & Aggression 
    (00:45:46) Cortisol, Serotonin & Aggressive Behaviors 
    (00:51:56) Tool: Omega-3 Supplementation & Mood 
    (00:54:18) Tool: Sunlight, Sauna & Cortisol Reduction
    (00:55:54) Tool: Ashwagandha & Cortisol Reduction
    (00:57:06) Tool: Seasonality/Sunlight, Genetic Variation in Estrogen Sensitivity
    (01:00:37) Testosterone & Aggression, Competitive Work Environments
    (01:05:07) Testosterone, Amygdala, Challenge & Effort 
    (01:09:27) Caffeine, Alcohol & Impulsivity 
    (01:13:15) Tool: Caffeinated Alcohol Beverages, Impulsivity & Aggression 
    (01:17:18) Tool: ADHD, Acetyl-L Carnitine & Aggressive Behavior 
    (01:24:10) Factors Affecting the “Hydraulic Pressure Model” of Aggression 
    (01:25:44) Book by Dr. David Anderson, Aggression & Social Relationships 
    (01:27:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • My guest is Rhonda Patrick, Ph.D. She earned her doctoral degree in biomedical science from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and has become one of the leading public health educators on the brain and general health, aging, cancer, and nutrition. We discuss the four major categories of micronutrients that regulate cellular and organ stress and antioxidants, inflammation, hormone regulation, immune system, and longevity. Dr. Patrick provides actionable protocols for obtaining key micronutrients from food and/or supplement-based sources. Additionally, Dr. Patrick outlines protocols for deliberate cold and deliberate heat exposure to benefit metabolism, cardiorespiratory fitness, mental health, and lifespan. 
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract
    Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA
    Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR
    https://hubermanlab.com/tour
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Momentous
    https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Dr. Rhonda Patrick – Micronutrients, Cold & Heat Exposure 
    (00:03:12) Momentous Supplements
    (00:04:27) The Brain-Body Contract 
    (00:05:30) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, InsideTracker
    (00:09:42) Stress Response Pathways, Hormesis
    (00:16:38) Plants, Polyphenols, Sulforaphane
    (00:21:12) Tools 1: Sulforaphane - Broccoli Sprouts, Broccoli, Mustard Seed 
    (00:23:50) Tool 2: Moringa & Nrf2 Antioxidant Response
    (00:25:25) Sulforaphane: Antioxidants (Glutathione) & Air Pollution (Benzene Elimination) 
    (00:27:10) Plants & Stress Response Pathways, Intermittent Challenges 
    (00:29:35) Traumatic Brain Injury, Sulforaphane, Nrf2 
    (00:35:08) Tools 3: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (ALA, EPA & DHA), Fish Oil, Oxidation 
    (00:48:40) EPA Omega-3s & Depression 
    (00:52:02) Krill Oil vs. Fish Oil Supplements? 
    (00:54:23) Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Index & Life Expectancy 
    (00:59:24) Tool 4: Food Sources of EPA Omega-3s 
    (01:06:07) Omega-3 Supplementation, Omega-3 Index Testing
    (01:10:22) Benefits of Omega-3s 
    (01:14:40) Tool 5: Food Sources of DHA Omega-3s
    (01:17:07) Vitamin D & Sun Skin Exposure 
    (01:22:18) Role of Vitamin D, Gene Regulation 
    (01:25:30) Tool 6: Vitamin D Testing & Vitamin D3 Supplementation 
    (01:33:15) Tool 7: Skin Surface Area & Sun Exposure, Vitamin D 
    (01:34:23) Vitamin D & Longevity
    (01:36:46) Sun Exposure & Sunscreen
    (01:40:30) Role of Magnesium, Magnesium Sources, Dark Leafy Green Vegetables
    (01:44:50) Tool 8: Magnesium Supplements: Citrate, Threonate, Malate, Bisglycinate 
    (01:50:57) Tool 9: Deliberate Cold Exposure Protocol & Mood/Anxiety
    (01:59:22) Tool 10: Cold Exposure, Mitochondria UCP1 & Heat Generation
    (02:02:30) Tool 11: Cold & Fat ‘Browning’, PGC-1alpha, Metabolism
    (02:05:08) Cold Exposure & High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), PGC-1alpha, Muscle 
    (02:08:04) Tools 12: Exercise, HIIT, Tabata & Sauna 
    (02:13:30) Tool 13: Sauna, Endorphins/Dynorphins, Mood 
    (02:17:45) Tool 14: Mild Stress, Adrenaline & Memory
    (02:19:53) Sauna, Vasodilation & Alzheimer’s and Dementia Risk 
    (02:25:30) Sauna Benefits, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) 
    (02:31:29) Insulin signaling, FOXO3 & Longevity 
    (02:33:22) Tools 16: Sauna Protocols, Hot Baths & Fertility 
    (02:37:41) Tool 17: Exercise & Longevity, Osteocalcin 
    (02:41:37) Tools 18: Red Light Sauna? Infrared Sauna? Sauna & Sweating of Heavy Metals
    (02:47:20) FoundMyFitness Podcast, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Momentous Supplements, Huberman Lab on Instagram & Twitter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • I describe the mechanisms by which deliberate heat exposure impacts body temperature, metabolism, heart health, hormone production, exercise recovery, cognition, mood, and longevity. I detail specific protocols for deliberate heat exposure, including exposure times, temperature ranges to consider, time of day, and delivery mechanisms (sauna vs. hot bath vs. open air heat, etc.) in order to achieve different specific outcomes, including dramatic growth hormone releases, or reduction in cortisol levels. I also discuss the ability of locally applied heat to heal or otherwise improve various bodily tissues and new data on how local application of heat may induce the conversion of metabolically sluggish white fat to metabolically robust beige fat.Thank you to our sponsorsLMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/hubermanInsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/hubermanROKA - https://www.roka.com - code "huberman"See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body ContractTuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WAWednesday, May 18th: Portland, ORhttps://hubermanlab.com/tourOur Patreon pagehttps://www.patreon.com/andrewhubermanSupplements from MomentousI am pleased to announce that the Huberman Lab Podcast is now partnered with Momentous. Momentous supplements are of the very highest quality; each is third-party tested for purity and accuracy of dosage. To learn more about the Huberman Lab Podcast-Momentous partnership, the supplements I that take, and stay up-to-date with future product announcements, visit: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman.For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.Timestamps(00:00:00) Heat & Health(00:03:37) Momentous Supplements(00:04:52) The Brain-Body Contract(00:05:46) LMNT, InsideTracker, ROKA(00:09:31) Body Shell Temperature vs. Body Core Temperature(00:13:28) Thermal Regulation, Hyperthermia(00:17:36) Heat Removal Circuits, Pre-Optic Hypothalamus (POA)(00:26:30) Protocols & Benefits of Deliberate Heat Exposure(00:33:37) Tools & Conditions for Deliberate Heat Exposure(00:38:47) Deliberate Heat Exposure, Cortisol & Cardiovascular Health(00:44:50) Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Regulation(00:47:56) Longevity & Heat Exposure, FOXO3(00:52:30) Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure & Metabolism(00:54:48) Deliberate Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone(01:04:32) Parameters for Heat & Cold Exposure(01:08:26) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature, Cold & Heat Exposure(01:12:00) Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone(01:16:20) Tool: Hydration & Sauna(01:17:10) Heat, Endorphins & Dynorphins, Mood(01:28:44) Tool: Glabrous Skin To Heat or Cool(01:35:33) Local Hyperthermia, Converting White Fat to Beige Fat, Metabolism(01:47:00) Hormesis/Mitohormesis & Heat/Cold Exposure(01:49:11) Benefits of Heat Exposure(01:51:10) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network NewsletterTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • I describe the mechanisms by which different wavelengths of light impact the cells, tissues and organs of the human body, and how specifically timed light exposure of specific wavelengths can be used to improve sleep, enhance alertness, modulate hormone levels, and improve mood. I also explain the use of ultraviolet and infrared phototherapies to relieve pain increase testosterone and estrogen levels; improve skin health, appearance and wound healing; and how red light can be used to offset age-related vision loss and provide neuroprotection. Throughout the episode, I describe the mechanisms of light-based therapies and actionable tools that people can use positively impact mental and physical health.Thank you to our sponsorsAG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/hubermanThesis: https://takethesis.com/hubermanLMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/hubermanSee Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body ContractTuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WAWednesday, May 18th: Portland, ORhttps://hubermanlab.com/tourOur Patreon pagehttps://www.patreon.com/andrewhubermanSupplements from Thornehttps://www.thorne.com/u/hubermanFor the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.Timestamps(00:00:00) Using Light to Improve Health(00:04:31) The Brain-Body Contract(00:05:17) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, LMNT(00:09:56) Physics of Light, Electromagnetic Energy(00:12:23) Wavelengths of Light(00:15:38) How Light Penetrates Tissues(00:20:13) Light & the Body: Direct & Indirect Signals(00:28:35) Light, Seasonality & Melatonin(00:33:40) Melatonin: Regulatory & Protective Effects(00:38:49) Tools: Optimizing Melatonin Levels(00:44:49) Sun (UVB light) Exposure, Mating Behavior, Testosterone & Estrogen(00:58:09) Seasonality, Romantic Passion & Testosterone(01:02:13) Tool: Skin Sun Exposure & Testosterone(01:06:13) Light & Improved Pain Tolerance(01:11:55) Protocol: Sun Exposure & Chronic Pain(01:12:48) Tools: Sunlight (UVB), Blue-Light Blockers, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)(01:19:44) Light & Enhanced Immune Function(01:23:30) Tool: Light During Winter Months(01:26:18) Light Therapies: Local vs. Systemic Exposure(01:28:54) Tool: Improving Mood, Timing of Natural & Artificial Light(01:32:44) Light Conditions & Sleep Optimization(01:39:00) Infrared Light, Skin & Wound Healing(01:46:00) Infrared Light Therapy & Skin, Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT)(01:49:20) Infrared Light & Age-Related Vision Loss(01:59:36) Tools: Infrared Panels, Morning Exposure(02:05:22) Infrared Light at Night, Shift Work(02:08:35) Light Flicker Phototherapy & Neuroprotection(02:19:07) Phototherapies for Health(02:20:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Brain-Body ContractTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • My guest is Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, a dual board-certified physician in family medicine and obesity medicine and an expert in optimizing hormone levels to improve overall health and well-being in both men and women. We discuss how to improve hormones using behavioral, nutritional, and exercise-based tools and safely and rationally approach supplementation and hormone therapies. We discuss testosterone and estrogen and how those hormones relate to fertility, mood, aging, relationships, disease pathologies, thyroid hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, dopamine and peptides that impact physical and mental health and vitality across the lifespan. The episode is rich with scientific mechanisms and tools for people to consider.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    ROKA: https://roka.com - use code "huberman"
    See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract
    Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA
    Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR
    https://hubermanlab.com/tour
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Thorne
    https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, Hormone Optimization   
    (00:03:10) The Brain-Body Contract 
    (00:04:10) Thesis, InsideTracker, ROKA
    (00:08:24) Preventative Medicine & Hormone Health 
    (00:14:17) The Six Pillars of Hormone Health Optimization
    (00:17:14) Diet for Hormone Health, Blood Testing
    (00:20:21) Exercise for Hormone Health 
    (00:21:06) Caloric Restriction, Obesity & Testosterone 
    (00:23:55) Intermittent Fasting, Growth Hormone (GH), IGF-1
    (00:29:08) Sleep Quality & Hormones
    (00:35:03) Testosterone in Women
    (00:38:55) Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), Hair Loss 
    (00:43:46) DHT in Men and Women, Turmeric/Curcumin, Creatine
    (00:50:10) 5-Alpha Reductase, Finasteride, Saw Palmetto 
    (00:52:30) Hair loss, DHT, Creatine Monohydrate
    (00:55:07) Hair Regrowth, Male Pattern Baldness
    (00:58:12) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Inositol, DIM
    (01:04:00) Oral Contraception, Perceived Attractiveness, Fertility 
    (01:10:31) Testosterone & Marijuana or Alcohol
    (01:14:27) Sleep Supplement Frequency
    (01:15:34) Testosterone Supplementation & Prostate Cancer 
    (01:20:24) Prostate Health, Dietary Fiber, Saw Palmetto, C-Reactive Protein  
    (01:24:05) Prostate Health & Pelvic Floor, Viagra, Tadalafil 
    (01:30:54) Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT)
    (01:35:17) Estrogen & Aromatase Inhibitors, Calcium D-Glucarate, DIM 
    (01:39:28) Lifestyle Factors to Increase Testosterone/Estrogen Levels, Dietary Fats 
    (01:45:34) Aromatase Supplements: Ecdysterone, Turkesterone
    (01:47:04) Tongkat Ali (Long Jack), Estrogen/Testosterone levels 
    (01:52:25) Fadogia Agrestis, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Frequency
    (01:56:44) Boron, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)
    (01:58:13) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), Fertility
    (02:04:18) Prolactin & Dopamine, Pituitary Damage 
    (02:08:34) Augmenting Dopamine Levels: Casein, Gluten, Vitamin E, Vitamin B6 (P5P)
    (02:12:30) L-Carnitine & Fertility, TMAO & Allicin (Garlic) 
    (02:18:19) Blood Test Frequency 
    (02:19:41) Long-Term Relationships & Effects on Hormones
    (02:25:33) Nesting Instincts: Prolactin, Childbirth & Relationships
    (02:29:05) Cold & Hot Exposure, Hormones & Fertility
    (02:32:34) Peptide Hormones: Insulin, Tesamorelin, Ghrelin 
    (02:37:24) Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs)
    (02:39:38) BPC-157 & Injury, Dosing Frequency
    (02:45:23) Uses for Melanotan 
    (02:48:21) Spiritual Health Impact on Mental & Physical Health 
    (02:54:18) Caffeine & Hormones 
    (02:56:19) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Review, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Brain-Body Contract
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • I describe mechanisms by which deliberate cold exposure can enhance mental health, physical health, and performance. I detail specific protocols to safely engage in deliberate cold exposure, including minimal exposure times, time-of-day effects, determining optimal temperatures, recovery, mindset, and movement during cold exposure. I discuss how cold exposure can be used to safely stress the body to improve attention, mood, and cognitive focus and boost metabolism and reduce inflammation. Also, I explain how cold exposure on specific regions of the body (called glabrous skin surfaces) can be leveraged to enhance endurance and weight training and increase work output.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    ROKA: https://roka.com - use code "huberman"
    Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman
    See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract
    Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA
    Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR
    https://hubermanlab.com/tour
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Thorne
    https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure, Health Warning
    (00:04:23) Tool: Moderate Exercise & Cognitive Work
    (00:10:47) The Brain-Body Contract
    (00:11:32) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep
    (00:15:37) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature
    (00:18:41) Tool: Quickly Decrease Core Body Temperature, Glabrous Skin
    (00:25:26) Mental Effects of Cold Exposure
    (00:29:02) Physical Effects of Cold Exposure
    (00:30:11) How Cold Should the Temperature Be?
    (00:34:53) Cold Showers vs. Cold Water Immersion
    (00:38:27) Protocols for Cold Exposure
    (00:50:57) Optimal Mindset(s) During Cold Exposure
    (00:55:26) Tool: Using Movement During Cold Exposure
    (00:57:51) Optimal Frequency of Cold Exposure
    (01:00:22) Cold Exposure for Dopamine, Mood & Focus
    (01:12:55) Cold Exposure & Metabolism, Brown Fat
    (01:25:55) Tool: Caffeine, Dopamine & Cold Exposure
    (01:29:14) Tools: Increasing Metabolism w/Cold – The Søberg Principle, Shivering
    (01:34:15) Norepinephrine & Fat Cells
    (01:36:22) Cold, Physical Performance, Inflammation
    (01:47:36) Hyperthermia & Glabrous Skin Cooling
    (01:53:27) Tool: Palmar Cooling & Endurance
    (02:03:18) Cold Exposure to Groin, Increasing Testosterone
    (02:07:50) Tool: Optimal Timing for Daily Cold Exposure
    (02:11:16) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer: The Huberman Lab Podcast is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine, nursing or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice, and no doctor/patient relationship is formed. The use of information on this podcast or materials linked from this podcast is at the user's own risk. The content of this podcast is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Users should not disregard or delay in obtaining medical advice for any medical condition they may have and should seek the assistance of their health care professionals for any such conditions.

  • My guest is Dr. Andy Galpin, Professor of Kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton, and one of the foremost experts in the world on the science and application of methods to increase strength, hypertrophy and endurance performance. We discuss fundamental principles of strength and hypertrophy training and building endurance, the mechanisms underlying them and we review specific protocols to optimize training and recovery. We also discuss hydration, sleep, nutrition, supplements, and mental tools that can be leveraged to accelerate adaptations leading to enhanced strength, muscle growth and/or endurance.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract
    Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA
    Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR
    https://hubermanlab.com/tour
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Thorne
    https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Dr. Andy Galpin, Strength & Endurance Training  
    (00:03:08) The Brain-Body Contract 
    (00:03:55) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, InsideTracker
    (00:08:20) Adaptations of Exercise, Progressive Overload 
    (00:14:40) Modifiable Variables, One-Rep Max, Muscle Soreness
    (00:27:30) Modifiable Variables of Strength Training, Supersets  
    (00:43:50) How to Select Training Frequency: Strength vs. Hypertrophy 
    (00:58:45) Hypertrophy Training, Repetition Ranges, Blood Flow Restriction 
    (01:08:50) Tools: Protocols for Strength Training, the 3 by 5 Concept 
    (01:10:48) Mind-Muscle Connection 
    (01:16:16) Mental Awareness 
    (01:27:57) Breathing Tools for Resistance Training & Post-Training 
    (01:37:25) Endurance Training & Combining with Strength
    (01:51:20) Tools: Protocols for Endurance Training
    (02:08:15) Muscular Endurance, Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscle 
    (02:16:35) Hydration & the Galpin Equation, Sodium, Fasting   
    (02:35:57) Cold Exposure & Training  
    (02:43:15) Heat Exposure & Training 
    (02:53:47) Recovery  
    (03:04:02) Tool: Sodium Bicarbonate
    (03:17:26) Tool: Creatine Monohydrate
    (03:20:08) Absolute Rest
    (03:29:08) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • I explain how to blunt sugar cravings through fundamental knowledge of how sugar is sensed, metabolized, and utilized within the body. I explain how sugar is processed through the digestive tract and nervous system and how both the taste and nutritive components of sugar can lead to specific appetite changes and cravings. I discuss the connection between sugar, dopamine, and cravings and outline many tools to curb sugar cravings, specifically craving highly processed refined sugars.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract
    Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA
    Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR
    https://hubermanlab.com/tour
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Thorne
    https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Sugar & Physiology
    (00:02:25) The Brain-Body Contract
    (00:03:13) Thesis, AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker
    (00:07:40) Sugar & the Brain
    (00:10:06) Appetite & Hormones: Ghrelin & Insulin
    (00:14:17) Glucose & Brain Function
    (00:24:19) Glucose & Physical Activity
    (00:26:16) Fructose vs. Glucose
    (00:32:41) When to Eat High-Sugar Foods?
    (00:35:01) Sugar’s Taste vs. Nutritive Pathways, Sugar Cravings
    (00:41:46) Tool: Sugar & the Dopamine, Pleasure – Pain Dichotomy
    (00:48:43) Subconscious Sugar Circuits, Hidden Sugars in Food
    (00:58:03) Glucose Metabolism in the Brain
    (01:03:00) Tool: Glycemic Index, Blunting Sugar Cravings
    (01:12:08) Sugary Drinks, Highly Refined Sugars
    (01:14:33) Artificial Sweeteners
    (01:22:36) ADHD, Omega-3s
    (01:30:18) Tools: Reduce Sugar Cravings with EPA Omega-3s & Glutamine
    (01:35:15) Tool: Blunt Sugar Peaks & Craving with Lemon Juice
    (01:43:09) Tool: Reduce Sugar Cravings & Spikes with Cinnamon
    (01:45:10) Berberine, Sustained Low Blood Glucose Levels
    (01:51:24) Tool: Sleep & Sugar Cravings
    (01:56:33) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Instagram, Twitter, Thorne, Neural Network Newsletter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • I discuss the role of salt (sodium) in the nervous system and the key role that it plays in mental performance, physical performance and health. I explain how the brain senses salt levels in our body and how that relates to our feelings of thirst. I cover the physiology of the renal system and the hormones that control sodium and water balance in our body. I also explore how salt interacts with stress and our immune systems and its crucial role in neuron function. Additionally, I examine research findings suggesting that some individuals might benefit from increased intake of sodium and other electrolytes (magnesium and potassium) to enhance mental performance, lessen anxiety, and offset dizziness. Yet, other people may need less sodium. I discuss how you can determine your optimal sodium intake and why sodium intake levels need to be uniquely tailored to an individual’s lifestyle. Finally, I explain how salt creates ‘hidden’ sugars in many processed foods and the problems that can create. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed findings outlining salt’s essential role in overall health and describe general recommendations and tools anyone can use to find their optimal salt balance and thereby enhance their brain and body’s performance.
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    See Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body Contract
    Tuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WA
    Wednesday, May 18th: Portland, OR
    https://hubermanlab.com/tour
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Thorne
    https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman
    For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.
    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Role of Salt 
    (00:02:18) The Brain-Body Contract 
    (00:02:57) Neuropod Cells, Artificial Sweeteners & ‘Hidden’ Cravings 
    (00:10:57) AG1 (Athletic Greens), LMNT, InsideTracker 
    (00:15:06) Salt Regulation 
    (00:17:13) How the Brain Senses Salt
    (00:24:15) Salt & Thirst 
    (00:29:27) Blood Pressure & Thirst 
    (00:33:47) Kidneys & Urine Regulation
    (00:39:08) Vasopressin: Roles in Libido & Urination 
    (00:45:46) How Much Salt Do You Need? 
    (00:56:45) Should You Increase Your Salt Intake? 
    (01:02:19) Tools: Determining Your Individual Salt Intake
    (01:14:02) Iodine, Sea Salt 
    (01:17:13) Salt: Roles in Stress & Anxiety 
    (01:24:20) Other Electrolytes: Magnesium & Potassium 
    (01:27:57) Tools: Effects of Low-carbohydrate Diets & Caffeine 
    (01:32:28) General Recommendations for Salt Intake 
    (01:36:34) Perception of Salt & Sugar Taste, Processed Foods 
    (01:47:13) Role of Sodium in Neuronal Function, Action Potentials 
    (01:53:13) Dehydration 
    (01:55:36) What Salt Intake is Best for You? 
    (02:00:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter 
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • My guest this episode is Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, Professor of Microbiology & Immunology at Stanford University. Dr. Sonnenburg’s research focuses on how microbes in our gut impact our mental and physical health and how diet and your environment shape your gut microbiome. We discuss the architecture of the gut microbiome and microbiota variability in different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and how these can change in response to diet, environment or genetics. We explore the early establishment of your microbiome and how your mode of delivery into the world (C-section or not) shapes your gut. We also discuss lifestyle factors that can alter your microbiome and the integral role the gut microbiome plays in communicating to other organs, including your brain. Dr. Sonnenburg details his recent clinical study, which found that diets rich in fermented foods (but not fiber) increase microbiota diversity and reduce signals of inflammation. Additionally, we examine how foods typical in Western Diets (e.g., high fat, low fiber, processed foods) can negatively impact the gut microbiome. Throughout the episode, we discuss actionable tools from peer-reviewed clinical findings that anyone can implement, regardless of budget, in order to optimize their gut microbiome and health.Thank you to our sponsorsAG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com - code "huberman"Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/hubermanSee Andrew Huberman Live: The Brain Body ContractTuesday, May 17th: Seattle, WAWednesday, May 18th: Portland, ORhttps://hubermanlab.com/tour - code: ‘huberman’Pre-sale tickets go on sale on Tuesday, March 8th at 10 AM PTOur Patreon pagehttps://www.patreon.com/andrewhubermanSupplements from Thornehttps://www.thorne.com/u/hubermanFor the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com.Timestamps(00:00:00) Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, Gut Microbiome(00:02:55) The Brain Body Contract(00:04:16) AG1 (Athletic Greens), ROKA, Helix Sleep(00:08:30) What is the Gut Microbiome?(00:12:49) Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract & Microbiota Variability(00:16:00) Breast Feeding, C-Sections & Pets(00:21:56) The Human Microbiome Project at Stanford(00:26:30) Traditional vs. Industrialized Populations(00:28:58) Resilience of the Microbiome(00:35:10) Regional Differences Along Your GI Tract(00:42:04) Fasting, Cleanses & Gut Health(00:51:19) Dietary Differences(01:01:24) Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrates, Processed Foods(01:07:03) Artificial & Plant-based Sweeteners(01:12:44) Cleanses: Useful? Harmful?(01:14:50) Your Microbiome & Your Immune System(01:20:17) Dietary Fiber & Fermented Foods(01:32:13) High-Fiber vs. High-Fermented Diet; Inflammation(01:41:33) Ripple Effects of a Healthy Diet(01:45:00) Does a High-Fiber Diet Make Inflammation Worse?(01:47:22) Over Sterilized Environments(01:50:15) The Gut Microbiome’s Effect on Physiology(01:56:45) Gut-Brain Connection(01:59:30) Probiotics: Benefits & Risks(02:04:20) Prebiotics: Essential?(02:07:00) Tools for Enhancing Your Gut Microbiota(02:11:12) Dr. Sonnenburg’s Research, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network NewsletterTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • In this episode, I discuss the profound effect the gut has on the nervous system. I cover the structure and function of the gut-brain axis and the role of the gut microbiome in the brain and overall health. I describe how the gut controls hunger or satiety by affecting neurons in our brain. I also contrast the many pathways by which the gut influences the brain: direct vs. indirect pathways, chemical vs. mechanical, and fast vs. slow signaling. Additionally, I discuss what defines a healthy microbiome and how your lifestyle impacts the gut microbiome, including the effects of stress, fasting, antibiotics, pets, environment, prebiotics and probiotics. I address how different foods shape the gut microbiome, in particular, the emerging data that fermented foods can increase the diversity of healthy gut microbiota. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed and textbook findings that reveal the critical role of the gut microbiome in supporting mental and physical health and I outline simple tools that anyone can use in order to enhance their gut microbiome health.Thank you to our sponsorsAG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/hubermanLMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/hubermanInsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/hubermanOur Patreon pagehttps://www.patreon.com/andrewhubermanSupplements from Thornehttps://www.thorne.com/u/hubermanSocial & WebsiteYouTubeInstagramTwitterFacebookWebsiteNewsletterArticle Links"The Emerging Biology of Gut-Brain Sensory Transduction""Mechanisms Underlying Microbial-Mediated Changes in Social Behavior in Mouse Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder""Association of Loneliness and Wisdom With Gut Microbial Diversity and Composition: An Exploratory Study""Emotional well-being and gut microbiome profiles by enterotype""Brain fogginess, gas and bloating: a link between SIBO, probiotics and metabolic acidosis""Gut-microbiota-targeted diets modulate human immune status""The preference for sugar over sweetener depends on a gut sensor cell"Book Links"The 4-Hour Chef: The Simple Path to Cooking Like a Pro, Learning Anything and Living the Good Life"Timestamps(00:00:00) Gut Microbiome (00:03:02) AG1 (Athletic Greens), LMNT, InsideTracker (00:06:55) Your Gut-Brain Axis (00:09:44) Gut-Brain Anatomy(00:15:32) Microbiota vs. Gut Microbiome (00:20:01) Roles of Gut Microbiome (00:23:03) Neuropod Cells: (Subconscious) Tasting with Your Stomach (00:34:13) Ghrelin: Slow Modulation of Your Brain in Hunger(00:38:02) Glucagon Like Peptide 1; GLP-1 (00:42:22) Tools: ‘Free Will’ & Food Cravings (00:44:46) Mechanical Cues from Gut to Brain(00:49:05) Dopamines, Vomiting (00:52:06) Indirect Signals from Gut Microbiota(00:59:30) Gut Microbiome “Critical Periods” (01:03:08) How Gut Health Controls Overall Health (01:12:25) What is a Healthy Gut Microbiome?(01:15:00) Tools: Enhance Your Gut Microbiome(01:23:49) Foods to Enhance Microbiota Diversity; Fermented Foods (01:37:07) High-Fiber Diets & Inflammation(01:40:58) Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners (01:44:27) Structure & Function of Gut-Brain Axis (01:49:47) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network NewsletterTitle Card Photo Credit: Mike BlabacDisclaimer

  • My guest is Dr. David Spiegel MD, Associate Chair of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Director of the Center on Stress and Health and Director of the Center for Integrative Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Spiegel has more than 40 years of clinical and research experience with hypnosis, stress physiology, and psychotherapy. In this episode, we examine the role of clinical hypnosis for the treatment of trauma, chronic pain, anxiety and more. Dr. Spiegel explains how to determine your level of ‘hypnotizability’ and provides case studies of incredible successes with hypnosis to treat a variety of ailments. We also discuss how breathing, vision and directed mental focus can modulate internal states and enhance performance. Additionally, we discuss how the adoption of self-hypnosis techniques can reduce stress and enhance sleep in anyone. Dr. Spiegel teaches us how hypnosis works at the neural circuit level to enhance cognitive flexibility. Throughout the episode, Dr. Spiegel summarizes key clinical trials and peer-reviewed findings and resources to work with a trained clinical professional or to do guided self-hypnosis. 
    Thank you to our sponsors
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    ROKA - https://roka.com - code "huberman"
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Thorne
    https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman
    Huberman Lab Social & Website

    YouTube

    Instagram

    Twitter

    Facebook

    Website

    Newsletter

    Dr. David Spiegel Links

    Stanford Center for Stress and Health

    Support Dr. Spiegel’s Research at Stanford (tax-deductible)

    Dr. Spiegel’s Published Work

    Email: [email protected]

    Article Links

    Posthypnotic Amnesia in Hypnotizability Assessment: Validation of a New Scoring System for the Hypnotic Induction Profile

    Post-traumatic stress disorder and cancer

    Association between Anterior Cingulate Neurochemical Concentration and Individual Differences in Hypnotizability

    Hypnosis reduces distress and duration of an invasive medical procedure for children

    Other Links

    Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

    American Society for Clinical Hypnosis

    Watch Andrew’s Hypnosis Session with Dr. Spiegel

    Reveri website

    Reveri app (iOS)

    Join the Waitlist for Reveri for Android

    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Dr. David Spiegel MD, Hypnosis
    (00:04:16) AG1 (Athletic Greens), Thesis, ROKA
    (00:09:09) Clinical Hypnosis
    (00:16:45) Stage Hypnosis
    (00:20:25) Neurobiology of Hypnosis
    (00:26:04) ADHD
    (00:28:22) Hypnosis for Stress & Sleep
    (00:32:12) Hypnosis to Strengthen Neural Connections
    (00:37:19) Restructuring Trauma Narratives
    (00:45:14) Ketamine Therapy
    (00:50:07) Self-directed Hypnosis, Reveri
    (00:56:53) Eliminating Obsessive Thoughts, Superstitions
    (01:01:50) ‘Hypnotizability’, the Spiegel Eye-roll Test
    (01:15:36) EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing)
    (01:21:43) Confronting Stress & Trauma
    (01:27:56) The Mind-Body Connection
    (01:31:35) Dealing with Grief
    (01:35:45) Hypnosis in Children & Groups
    (01:40:06) Drug Therapies & Hypnosis
    (01:42:39) Breathing Patterns, Peak Performance
    (01:50:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Thorne, Instagram, Twitter
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer

  • In this episode, I discuss the psychology and biology of desire, love and attachment. I explain how childhood attachment types are thought to inform adult attachment styles to romantic partners, and I describe some of the major theories of human mate selection, relationships and infidelity. Additionally, I explore the neurobiology and proposed subconscious processing underlying desire, love and attachment, including the roles of empathy and “positive delusion." I outline how self-awareness can shift one’s relationship attachment style towards securely bonded partnerships. Finally, I describe specific tools and supplements that have been researched to increase libido and sex drive. Throughout the episode, I explain the science and key mechanisms underlying romantic love and outline tools for those seeking to find a strong, healthy relationship, or for those wanting to strengthen an existing relationship. 
    Thank you to our sponsors
    Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman
    AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman
    InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman
    Our Patreon page
    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman
    Supplements from Thorne
    https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman
    Social & Website
    YouTube - https://www.youtube.com/andrewhubermanlab
    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab
    Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab
    Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab
    Website - https://hubermanlab.com
    Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network
    Article Links

    Romantic love: an fMRI study of a neural mechanism for mate choice

    Relationship-specific Encoding of Social Touch in Somatosensory and Insular Cortice

    Investigating real-life emotions in romantic couples: a mobile EEG study

    Brain Knows Who Is on the Same Wavelength: Resting-State Connectivity Can Predict Compatibility of a Female–Male Relationship

    Manipulation of Self-Expansion Alters Responses to Attractive Alternative Partners

    Randomized Clinical Trial on the Use of PHYSTA Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia for the Improvement of Quality of Life and Sexual Well-Being in Men

    For additional links and resources on Maca, Tongkat Ali and Tribulus, also see links in “Human Effect Matrix” at examine.com.
    Book Links

    Attached: The New Science of Adult Attachment and How It Can Help You Find and Keep Love

    Right Brain Psychotherapy

    The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work: A Practical Guide from the Country’s Foremost Relationship Expert

    Other Links

    The Gottman Institute Love Lab: A Research-Based Approach to Relationships

    New York Times - The 36 Questions that Lead to Love (1/9/2015)

    Timestamps
    (00:00:00) Desire, Love & Attachment 
    (00:02:59) Odor, Perceived Attractiveness & Birth Control
    (00:08:04) Thesis, AG1 (Athletic Greens), InsideTracker 
    (00:14:13) Romance: Balancing Love & Desire
    (00:19:00) Animal Studies, Vasopressin & Monogamy 
    (00:22:06) Strange Situation Task, Childhood Attachment Styles
    (00:32:52) Adult Attachment Styles
    (00:38:50) Secure Attachment 
    (00:41:23) Autonomic Arousal: The “See-Saw”
    (00:50:39) Tool: Self-Awareness, Healthy Interdependence
    (00:53:11) Neurobiology of Desire, Love & Attachment  
    (00:58:02) Empathy & Mating & the Autonomic Nervous System
    (01:10:02) Positive Delusion, Touch
    (01:15:20) Relationship Stability 
    (01:21:22) Selecting Mates, Recognition of Autonomic Tone
    (01:38:28) Neural Mechanisms of Romantic Attachment 
    (01:47:43) Autonomic Coordination in Relationships 
    (01:56:13) Infidelity & Cheating
    (02:08:56) “Chemistry”, Subconscious Processes
    (02:12:44) Tools: Libido & Sex Drive 
    (02:20:20) Maca (Maca root)  
    (02:25:58) Tongkat Ali (Longjack) 
    (02:28:56) Tribulus terrestris 
    (02:33:14) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify/Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Patreon, Instagram, Twitter, Thorne
    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
    Disclaimer