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  • Get your butt-, er, book here: https://www.minuteearth.com/books/ Hyenas communicate via an information-dense physical medium (hyena butter) - and now MinuteEarth does too (book). SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Kate Yoshida | Script Writer and Narrator David Goldenberg | Director Arcadi Garcia i Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OTHER CREDITS ***************** Hyena audio clips by Dr. Kenna Lehmann OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Hofer, H., M. L. East, I. Sammang, and & M. Dehnhard. 2001. Analysis of volatile compounds in scent-marks of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and their possible function in olfactory communication. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 9:141–148. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4615-0671-3_18 Theis, K.R., Venkataraman, A., Dycus, J. A., Koonter, K.D.S., Schmitt-Matzen, E.N., Wagner. A.P., Holekamp, K.E., & Schmidt, T.M (2013) Symbiotic bacteria appear to mediate hyena social odors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110: 19832–19837. Retrieved from: https://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1306477110 Theis, K. R., Schmidt, T. M. & Holekamp, K. E. (2012) Evidence for a bacterial mechanism for group-specific social odors among hyenas. Scientific Reports 2, 615. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3431069/ MinuteEarth (2021). MinuteEarth Explains: How Did Whales Get So Big? & Other Curious Questions about Animals, Nature, Geology and Planet Earth. Retrieved from: https://www.MinuteEarth.com/books

  • Offset your carbon footprint with Wren! They'll plant 10 extra trees for each of the first 100 people who sign up at https://www.wren.co/start/minuteearth. The current hurricane category scale doesn’t accurately convey the danger of a storm, because it doesn’t account for a hurricane's most destructive factors. ⬇️ PREORDER OUR FIRST BOOK (out October 12th) ⬇️ DFTBA (get SUPER-cool book bundles here!): https://store.dftba.com/collections/minuteearth Amazon - http://bit.ly/MinuteEarthExplains Bookshop.org - http://bit.ly/MinuteEarthexplains Barnes and Noble - http://bit.ly/Minuteearthexplains Indigo (Canada)- http://bit.ly/MinuteearthExplains LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Storm surge: a sea level rise caused by strong winds pushing the water and a change in atmospheric pressure of a storm. Hurricane: a tropical cyclone occurring in the Atlantic Ocean or northeastern Pacific Ocean Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale: the current scale used to categorize hurricanes from 1 to 5 based on the hurricane’s maximum sustained wind speed. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Julián Gustavo Gómez (@TheJulianGomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Belles, Jonathan. “Surface Pressure a Better Indicator of Hurricane Damage Potential, New Study Says | the Weather Channel - Articles from the Weather Channel | Weather.com.” The Weather Channel, 2020, https://weather.com/storms/hurricane/news/2020-01-29-hurricane-surface-pressure-damage-potential-wind. Erdman, Jonathan. “88% of U.S. Deaths from Hurricanes, Tropical Storms Are from Water, Not Wind | the Weather Channel - Articles from the Weather Channel | Weather.com.” The Weather Channel, 2021, https://weather.com/safety/hurricane/news/hurricanes-tropical-storms-us-deaths-surge-flooding. Gibbens, Sarah. “Hurricane Categories Don’t Tell the Whole Story.” Environment, National Geographic, 14 Sept. 2021, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/hurricane-categories-do-not-tell-the-whole-story-see-what-matters. Klotzbach, Philip J., et al. "Surface pressure a more skillful predictor of normalized hurricane damage than maximum sustained wind." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 101.6 (2020): E830-E846. https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/bams/101/6/bamsD190062.xml Olson, Richard S. “Add a New Hurricane Category. Cat 6 | Opinion.” Sun-Sentinel.com, South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 3 Dec. 2019, https://www.sun-sentinel.com/opinion/commentary/fl-op-com-olson-cat-six-hurricane-category-20191203-4fwaq7hjmbdkli3sg5trmfysku-story.html. Pilkington, Stephanie F., and Hussam N. Mahmoud. "Using artificial neural networks to forecast economic impact of multi-hazard hurricane-based events." Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure 1.1-2 (2016): 63-83. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23789689.2016.1179529 Plumer, Brad. “Hurricane Patricia: Why a Record Storm Did Surprisingly Little Damage.” Vox, Vox, 26 Oct. 2015, https://www.vox.com/2015/10/26/9615274/hurricane-patricia-aftermath. ‌“Storm Surge Overview.” Noaa.gov, 2021, https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/surge/.

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  • Check out the heroes who saved the ozone layer at https://futureoflife.org/future-of-life-award/ Lots of global problems seem intractable, but there’s a formula for success that we can follow. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Ozone layer: A thin layer of ozone concentrated in the Earth’s stratosphere roughly 10 kilometers above that absorbs most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation before it hits the Earth’s surface. Ultraviolet radiation: Invisible rays of energy that come from the sun that can be harmful to humans and other lifeforms. Chlorofluorocarbons: Also known as CFCs, these long man-made molecules used to be widely used refrigerants and solvents before it was discovered that - when exposed to ultraviolet radiation - their chlorine atoms would break off and combine with ozone molecules. Smallpox: A virus that killed more than half a billion humans before being eradicated in 1980. Disease Surveillance: A practice by which disease progressions are closely monitored in order to minimize the harm caused by outbreaks. ⬇️ PREORDER OUR FIRST BOOK (out October 12th) ⬇️ DTFBA (get SUPER-cool book bundles here!): https://store.dftba.com/collections/minuteearth Amazon - http://bit.ly/MinuteEarthExplains Bookshop.org - http://bit.ly/MinuteEarthexplains Barnes and Noble - http://bit.ly/Minuteearthexplains Indigo (Canada)- http://bit.ly/MinuteearthExplains SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Ochmann, Sophie, and Max Roser. “Smallpox.” Our World in Data, 2018, https://ourworldindata.org/smallpox. Data on Smallpox. Henderson, D A. SMALLPOX - the DEATH of a DISEASE : The inside Story of Eradicating a Worldwide Killer. S.L., Prometheus, 2021, pp. 57–61. CDC. “History of Smallpox.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 20 Feb. 2021, https://cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html. Waxman, Olivia B. 2019. “Reagan Administration Officials at First Dismissed the Ozone Hole. Here’s What Changed.” Time. April 9, 2019. https://time.com/5564651/reagan-ozone-hole/ Velders, G. J. M., S. O. Andersen, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Fahey, and M. McFarland. 2007. “The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (12): 4814–19. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0610328104. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. n.d. “Susan Solomon: Pioneering Atmospheric Scientist.” Celebrating200years.noaa.gov. Accessed July 20, 2021. https://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/historymakers/solomon/welcome.html. Solomon, Susan. 2019. “The Discovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole.” Nature 575 (7781): 46–47. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-02837-5 Pyle, John, and Neil Harris. 2013. “Joe Farman (1930–2013).” Nature 498 (7455): 435–35. https://doi.org/10.1038/498435a. Foege, William H, and Milbank Memorial Fund. House on Fire : The Fight to Eradicate Smallpox. Berkeley, University Of California Press, 2012 Future of Life Institute. “Future of Life Award 2020: Saving 200,000,000 Lives by Eradicating Smallpox.” Future of Life Institute, Lucas Perry, 11 Dec. 2020, https://futureoflife.org/the-future-of-life-podcast/.

  • Watch the new season of MinuteBody - and get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula - at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth. People all around the world tend to represent time via space, but there’s no consensus on which way time goes. PREORDER OUR FIRST BOOK (out October 12th): DTFBA (get SUPER-cool book bundles here!): https://store.dftba.com/collections/minuteearth Amazon - http://bit.ly/MinuteEarthExplains Bookshop.org - http://bit.ly/MinuteEarthexplains Barnes and Noble - http://bit.ly/Minuteearthexplains Indigo (Canada)- http://bit.ly/MinuteearthExplains SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Bergen, B. K. & Lau, T. T. C. (2012) Writing direction affects how people map space onto time. Frontiers in Psychology 3:109. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00109/full Boroditsky, L. (2000). Metaphoric Structuring: Understanding time through spatial metaphors. Cognition, 75(1), 1-28. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010027799000736 Casasanto, D. & Boroditsky, L. (2008). Time in the mind: Using space to think about time. Cognition 106 (2):579-593 http://lera.ucsd.edu/papers/duration-cognition-2008.pdf Majid, A., Gaby, A., & Boroditsky, L. (2013). Time in terms of space. Frontiers in Psychology, 4: 554. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00554/full Núñez, R., Cooperrider, K., Doan, D., & Wassmann, J. (2012). Contours of time: Topographic construals of past, present, and future in the Yupno valley of Papua New Guinea. Cognition, 124(1), 25– 35. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010027712000571

  • Offset your carbon footprint with Wren! They'll plant 10 extra trees for each of the first 100 people who sign up at https://www.wren.co/start/minuteearth. Because smaller animals have to eat more relative to their bodyweight, Tolkein’s hobbits need to eat a lot - not for comfort, but for survival. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Metabolism: The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life. Square-cube Law: A mathematical principle which describes the relationship between the volume and the surface area as a shape's size increases or decreases. Kleiber’s Law: The observation that, for the vast majority of animals, an animal's metabolic rate scales to the 3⁄4 power of the animal's mass. Calorie: Unit of energy. One food calorie equals 1 kilocalorie. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Cameron Duke | Script Writer David Goldenberg | Script Editor, Narrator and Director Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Kleiber, M. (1947). BODY SIZE AND METABOLIC RATE. Physiological Reviews, 27(4), 511–541. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1947.27.4.511. Dawson, N. (1967). The Surface-Area/Body-Weight Relationship in Mice. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 20(3), 687. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1071/bi9670687. How Much Does an Elephant Weigh? (2019, September 26). Wonderopolis.org. Retrieved from: https://wonderopolis.org/wonder/how-much-does-an-elephant-weigh Thommen, Albert, et al. “Body Size-Dependent Energy Storage Causes Kleiber’s Law Scaling of the Metabolic Rate in Planarians.” (2019) ELife, eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd, 4 Jan. 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.elifesciences.org/articles/38187. West, G. B., Brown, J. H., & Enquist, B. J. (1997). A General Model for the Origin of Allometric Scaling Laws in Biology. Science, 276(5309), 122–126. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.276.5309.122.

  • Watch the new season of MinuteBody - and get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula - at http://www.curiositystream.com/minuteearth. Sharks wouldn’t be known for their fierce teeth today if it weren’t for their ancient scales. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Dermal denticles: also called placoid scales, they’re the most primitive form of fish scales that are structurally similar to teeth and are today found only in sharks, rays, and chimaeras. Outside-in theory: The strongest theory for the evolution of teeth, which are thought to have evolved from dermal denticle scales. Ostracoderms: Extinct armored jawless fish that lived in the Paleozoic Era Thelodonts: Extinct jawless fish that had individual scales as opposed to plates of armor Placoderms: Now extinct, they were some of the first jawed fish and lived from the Silurian through the Devonian era. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Kate Yoshida | Co-Director Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Donoghue, Philip CJ, and Martin Rücklin. "The ins and outs of the evolutionary origin of teeth." Evolution & development 18.1 (2016): 19-30. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/ede.12099 Fraser, Gareth J., et al. "The odontode explosion: the origin of tooth‐like structures in vertebrates." Bioessays 32.9 (2010): 808-817. https://authors.library.caltech.edu/20188/3/nihms266189.pdf Huysseune, Ann, Jean‐Yves Sire, and P. Eckhard Witten. "Evolutionary and developmental origins of the vertebrate dentition." Journal of Anatomy 214.4 (2009): 465-476. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2736119/ Pennisi, Elizabeth. "Eating Was Tough For Early Tetrapods." (2013): 390-391. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6118/390.full

  • For your chance to win two seats on one of the first commercial flights to space with Virgin Galactic – all while supporting a great cause – enter at https://omaze.com/minuteearth. While the rest of the world’s megafauna are still foundering in the anthropocene era, these two big animals have used little animal strategies to bounce back. Way back. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: - Megafauna: Large animals, usually over 45 Kgs. - Anthropocene era: A proposed time period delineated the age during which human activity has been the dominant force on the environment and the climate. - Holocene Extinction: An ongoing extinction event of species due to human activity. - Fertility Rate: The number of babies an organism has in its lifetime. - Omnivory: The ability to eat food from two different trophic levels. - Bubble-Net Feeding: A cooperative hunting technique where groups of whales use bubbles to disorient fish prey. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Vivitskaia, J D, Tulloch, Éva E Plagányi, Richard Matear, Christopher J Brown, Anthony J Richardson. (2017) Ecosystem modelling to quantify the impact of historical whaling on Southern Hemisphere baleen whales. Fish and Fisheries, 19:1 (117-137). Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/faf.12241 Kosma Madison M., Werth Alexander J., Szabo Andrew R. and Straley Janice M. (2019). Pectoral herding: an innovative tactic for humpback whale foraging. Royal Society Open Science. 6:10. Retrieved from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsos.191104 Ritchie, Hannah, Roser, Max. "Biodiversity". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/biodiversity Pershing, A. J., Christensen, L. B., Record, N. R., Sherwood, G. D., & Stetson, P. B. (2010). The impact of whaling on the ocean carbon cycle: why bigger was better. PloS One, 5(8), e12444. Retrieved from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0012444 Ripple, William J., Newsome, Thomas M., Wolf, Christopher, Dirzo, Rodolfo, Everatt, Kristoffer, T.Galetti, Mauro, Hayward, Matt W.Kerley, Graham I. H.Levi, Taal, Lindsey, Peter A, Macdonald, David W. Malhi, Yadvinder, Painter, Luke E.Sandom, Christopher J., Terborgh, JohnVan, Valkenburgh, Blaire. (2015) Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores. Science Advances. 1:3 Retrieved from: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/4/e1400103/tab-pdf Meynecke, Olaf. 2021. Personal communication. Center for Coastal and Marine Management, Griffith University. https://www.dr-olaf.com/ Pallin Logan J., Baker C. Scott, Steel Debbie, Kellar Nicholas M., Robbins Jooke, Johnston David W., Nowacek Doug P., Read Andrew J. and Friedlaender Ari S. (2018) High pregnancy rates in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) around the Western Antarctic Peninsula, evidence of a rapidly growing population. Royal Society Open Science. 5:5. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180017 Holland, Jennifer. (2015) Black Bears Are Rebounding - What Does That Mean For People? National Geographic. Retrieved from: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/150626-black-bears-animals-science-nation-conservation?loggedin=true Ramona L. Gonzales, Alejandra V. Mendoza, Brendan M. Himelright, Jenna M. Moore, Thomas J. Spady (2013) American black bear mating behavior and chemosensation of estrus. Ursus, 24(2), 139-147. Retrieved from: https://bioone.org/journals/ursus/volume-24/issue-2/URSUS-D-12-00026.1/American-black-bear-mating-behavior-and-chemosensation-of-estrus/10.2192/URSUS-D-12-00026.1.short Himelright, B. M., Moore, J. M., Gonzales, R. L., Mendoza, A. V., Dye, P. S., Schuett, R. J., Durrant, B. S., Read, B. A., & Spady, T. J. (2014). Sequential ovulation and fertility of polyoestrous in American black bears (Ursus americanus). Conservation physiology, 2(1), Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1093/conphys/cou051

  • Start speaking a new language in 3 weeks with Babbel 🎉. Get up to 65% OFF ➡️ Here: https://go.babbel.com/12m65-youtube-minuteearth-july-2021/default It’s not just how much you take in; it’s how fast your body can purge it. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Poison: A substance that is capable of causing illness or death when introduced or absorbed. Overdose: A dangerously large dose of a substance. Biotransformation: The process by which foreign chemicals are transformed by the body into less toxic substances. Polydipsia: The medical term for feelings of extreme thirst that can lead to hyponatremia. Hyponatremia: Abnormally low sodium in the blood often caused by excessive water consumption. Lethal Concentration - The concentration a substance needs to be in the bloodstream to kill 50% of subjects. Metabolism - the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life. Toxicity - the quality of being toxic or poisonous. Excretion - the process of eliminating or expelling waste matter. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam) | Script Writer David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) | Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** ATSDR. (2006). Toxicological Profile for Cyanide. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp8-c3.pdf Cyanide Fact. (2013). Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. https://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/our-work/publications/cyanide-fact-sheet Lead (Pb) Toxicity: What is the Biological Fate of Lead in the Body? | Environmental Medicine | ATSDR. (2021, February 9). Cdc.gov. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/leadtoxicity/biologic_fate.html Lethal Doses of Water, Caffeine and Alcohol. (2014, July 27). Compound Interest. https://www.compoundchem.com/2014/07/27/lethaldoses/ Radcliffe, S. (2017, May 25). How You Can Die From a Caffeine Overdose. Healthline; Healthline Media. https://www.healthline.com/health-news/how-you-can-die-from-caffeine#Caffeine-overdose-is-rare Shalat, S. (2016, February 4). Toxic lead can stay in the body for years after exposure. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/toxic-lead-can-stay-in-the-body-for-years-after-exposure-53607 Shenvi, C. (2016, February 16). Hydroxocobalamin: Turning Cyanide into Vitamin B12 | Emergency Physicians Monthly. Emergency Physicians Monthly | EPM. https://epmonthly.com/article/hydroxocobalamin-turning-cyanide-into-vitamin-b12/

  • Offset your carbon footprint with Wren! They'll protect 5 extra acres of rainforest for each of the first 100 people who sign up at https://www.wren.co/join/minuteearth. Optimal foraging theory means that turning down food is sometimes more efficient than eating it - but even then, what’s “wasted” doesn’t necessarily go to waste. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Foraging: to search widely for food. Optimal Foraging Theory: A behavioral model that describes how an animal should behave when searching for food. Surplus Killing: a common behavior exhibited by predators, in which they kill more prey than they can immediately eat and then cache or abandon the remainder. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Cameron Duke | Script Writer Kate Yoshida | Script Editor Julián Gustavo Gómez | Narrator and Director Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Alcock, J. (2013). Animal behavior : an evolutionary approach. Sinauer, Cop. Hopkins, J. B. (2013). Use of genetics to investigate socially learned foraging behavior in free-ranging black bears. Journal of Mammalogy, 94(6), 1214–1222. https://doi.org/10.1644/13-mamm-a-009.1 Klinka, D. R., & Reimchen, T. E. (2009). Darkness, Twilight, and Daylight Foraging Success of Bears (Ursus americanus) on Salmon in Coastal British Columbia. Journal of Mammalogy, 90(1), 144–149. https://doi.org/10.1644/07-mamm-a-200.1 Lincoln, A. E., & Quinn, T. P. (2018). Optimal foraging or surplus killing: selective consumption and discarding of salmon by brown bears. Behavioral Ecology, 30(1), 202–212. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/ary139 Lounibos, L. P., Makhni, S., Alto, B. W., & Kesavaraju, B. (2008). Surplus Killing by Predatory Larvae of Corethrella appendiculata: Prepupal Timing and Site-Specific Attack on Mosquito Prey. Journal of Insect Behavior, 21(2), 47–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10905-007-9103-2 Maupin, J. L. (2001). Superfluous killing in spiders: a consequence of adaptation to food-limited environments? Behavioral Ecology, 12(5), 569–576. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/12.5.569 McMahon, B. F., & Evans, R. M. (1992). Foraging Strategies of American White Pelicans. Behaviour, 120(1-2), 69–89. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853992x00219

  • Watch the new season of MinuteBody - and get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula - at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth. Fevers are one of our best weapons against infections, but they don't work like you might think. We'd like to give a big thank you to Sharon Evans from the Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center for sharing her expertise for this video! LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Fever: a rise in body temperature, usually caused by infection Heat shock proteins (HSP): a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions Neutrophils: white blood cells that play an important role in inflammation and are early responders to pathogens. T cells: major components of the adaptive immune system whose roles include regulating the immune response to pathogens. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Appenheimer, M.M. & Evans, S.S. (2018) Temperature and adaptive immunity. Handbook of Clinical Neurology 156: 397–415. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B978-0-444-63912-7.00024-2 Casadevall, A. (2016) Thermal Restriction as an Antimicrobial Function of Fever. PLoS Pathog 12(5): e1005577. https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005577 ChangDong L. et al. (2019). Fever Promotes T Lymphocyte Trafficking via a Thermal Sensory Pathway Involving Heat Shock Protein 90 and α4 Integrins. Immunity 50(1):137-151. https://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(18)30495-3 Evans, S.S. et al. (2015) Fever and the thermal regulation of immunity: the immune system feels the heat. Nature Reviews Immunology 15(6): 335+. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4786079/ Hasday, J.D., Thompson, C., Singh, I.S. (2014) Fever, immunity, and molecular adaptations. Comprehensive Physiology 4:109–48. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cphy.c130019 Hasday, J.D. & Singh, I.S. (2000) Fever and the heat shock response: distinct, partially overlapping processes. Cell Stress Chaperones 5:471–480. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC312879/ Javid, B., MacAry, P.A. & Lehner, P.J. (2007) Structure and function: heat shock proteins and adaptive immunity. Journal of Immunology 179:2035–2040. https://www.jimmunol.org/content/179/4/2035 Mackowiak, P. A.: Direct effects of hyperthermia on pathogenic microorganisms: teleological implications with regard to fever. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1981, 3: 508–518. https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-abstract/3/3/508/307776

  • Start building your ideal daily routine 💪 The first 100 people who click on the link will get a FREE week trial and 25% OFF 🎁 Fabulous Premium ➡️ https://thefab.co/minuteearth By analyzing survivorship curves over the centuries, we can learn what’s changed about how - and when - humans die. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Life Expectancy At Birth: The average number of years a newborn in a particular group could expect to live. Mortality Rate: The frequency of occurrence of death within a particular group during a particular time period. Life Table: A table that shows the number of individuals within a group that survive from one year to the next until they are all dead. Survivorship Curve: A plot of the data in a particular life table that shows the years on the x-axis and the number or percent of survivors on the y-axis. Infant Mortality: The death of an infant before his or her first birthday. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts | https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2017). “Life Expectancy” – What does this actually mean?. Our World In Data. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy-how-is-it-calculated-and-how-should-it-be-interpreted. Medina, L. et al. (2020). Living Longer: Historical and Projected Life Expectancy in the United States, 1960 to 2060. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2020/demo/p25-1145.pdf Hacker J. D. (2010). Decennial Life Tables for the White Population of the United States, 1790-1900. Historical methods, 43(2), 45–79. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2885717/ United Nations. 2019 Revision of World Population Prospects. Retrieved from: https://population.un.org/wpp2019/Download/Standard/Mortality/. Szmigiera, M. (2021). Projected global infant mortality rate 1990-2100. Statista. Retrieved from : https://www.statista.com/statistics/673449/projected-global-infant-mortality-rate/ Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. (1910). United States Life Tables: Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/lifetables/life1890-1910.pdf US Department of Health, Education and Welfare. (1964). Life Tables. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/lifetables/life59-61_1_1acc.pdf Arias, E. (2014). National Vital Statistics Reports. United States Life Tables, 2010. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr63/nvsr63_07.pdf

  • Offset your carbon footprint with Wren! They'll protect 5 extra acres of rainforest for each of the first 100 people who sign up at https://www.wren.co/join/minuteearth. It turns out that defining what is and isn't a “tree” is way harder than it seems. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Wood: A bunch of cellulose fibers intertwined with lignin usually found in the trunk of a tree. Trunk: A wooden stem that thickens over time. Bonsai: An ornamental tree or shrub that is artificially prevented from reaching its normal size. Shrub: A woody plant that is smaller than a tree. Gymnosperm: A group of plants, including conifers, that have naked seeds. Angiosperm: A group of plants, including lots of other “trees” that have enclosed seeds. Monocots: A group of flowering plants - mostly angiosperms - with a single embryonic leaf that includes palm trees. Dicots: A group of flowering plants - mostly angiosperms - with two embryonic leaves that includes oak trees. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator, and Director Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing, and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Georg Miehe, Sabine Miehe, Jonas Vogel, Sonam Co, Duo La. (2007) "Highest Treeline in the Northern Hemisphere Found in Southern Tibet," Mountain Research and Development, 27(2), 169-173. Retrieved from: https://bioone.org/journals/mountain-research-and-development/volume-27/issue-2/mrd.0792/Highest-Treeline-in-the-Northern-Hemisphere-Found-in-Southern-Tibet/10.1659/mrd.0792.full#i0276-4741-27-2-169-b33 Ellenberg, H., Mueller-Dombois, D. (1965). A key to Raunkiaer plant life forms with revised subdivisions. Retrieved from: https://www.e-periodica.ch/cntmng?pid=bgi-002%3A1965%3A37%3A%3A130 Alcott, D. (2019). Are palm trees really trees? That’s Life Science. Retrieved from: http://thatslifesci.com/2019-11-25-Are-palm-trees-really-trees-dalcott/ David B. Neale, Pedro J. Martínez-García, Amanda R. De La Torre, Sara Montanari, Xiao-Xin Wei. (2017). “Novel Insights into Tree Biology and Genome Evolution as Revealed Through Genomics.” Annual Review of Plant Biology 68:1, 457-483. Retrieved from: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-arplant-042916-041049?journalCode=arplant Ehrenberg, Rachel. (2018). “What Makes A Tree A Tree?” Knowable Magazine. Retrieved from: https://knowablemagazine.org/article/living-world/2018/what-makes-tree-tree#:~:text=A%20banana%20tree%27s%20trunk%20doesn,cells%20typical%20of%20most%20trees Christophe Plomion, Grégoire Leprovost, Alexia Stokes. (2001). “Wood Formation in Trees”. Plant Physiology, Volume 127, 4: 1513–1523. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.010816 Ray, Georgia (2021). "There’s no such thing as a tree (phylogenetically)". Eukaryote Writes Blog. Retrieved from: https://eukaryotewritesblog.com/2021/05/02/theres-no-such-thing-as-a-tree/

  • Watch the new season of MinuteBody - and get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula - at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth. We might have a strong hand because having a weak hand is actually useful. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Handedness: the tendency to use one hand more than the other for specific tasks SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Peter Reich | Script Writer Kate Yoshida | Narrator and Director Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast... REFERENCES ************** Chédotal A and LJ Richards. 2010. Wiring the brain: the biology of neuronal guidance. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010 Jun; 2(6): a001917. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a001917 Magat M and C Brown. 2009. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots. Proc. R. Soc. B 276:4155-4162 Forrester GS, WD Hopkins, K Hudry, A Lindell (eds). 2018. Cerebral Lateralization and Cognition: Evolutionary and Developmental Investigations of Behavioral Biases. Progress in Brain Research. Book series. Volume 238, Pages 2-433 Corballis MC (2014) Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies. PLoS Biol 12(1): e1001767. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001767

  • Learn more about Lydall’s mission to create a cleaner, quieter and safer world at https://www.lydall.com. The global pandemic led to a drop in outdoor air pollution, but it also led to an increase in indoor air pollution - and our exposure to it. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Particulate matter: often abbreviated PM, it is the sum of all the tiny particles and drops of liquid suspended in the air including soil, soot, dust, metals, and acids like nitrates. Air quality: a measurement of how polluted the air is, judged by the level of known pollutants in the air like NO2 and particulate matter like soot. Ozonolysis: an organic chemical reaction wherein ozone cleaves a carbon-carbon bond in unsaturated compounds. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi i Garcia Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing, and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Anthes, Emily. "Coronavirus lockdowns may raise exposure to indoor air pollution." Scientific American 1 (2020). Chen, Yilin, et al. "Environmental Inequality Deepened During the COVID-19 in the Developing World." Environmental Science & Technology (2020). Eldeirawi, Kamal, et al. "Increased disinfectant use among adults with asthma in the era of COVID-19." The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice 9.3 (2021): 1378-1380. González-Martín, Javier, et al. "A state-of-the-art review on indoor air pollution and strategies for indoor air pollution control." Chemosphere (2020): 128376. Hoddinott, K. B., and A. P. Lee. "The use of environmental risk assessment methodologies for an indoor air quality investigation." Chemosphere 41.1-2 (2000): 77-84. Klepeis, Neil E., et al. "The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): a resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants." Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 11.3 (2001): 231-252. Lewis, Dyani. "COVID-19 rarely spreads through surfaces. So why are we still deep cleaning." Nature 590.7844 (2021): 26-28. Long, Christopher M., and Peter A. Valberg. "Indoor airborne particulate matter: Unregulated, but a major contributor to our everyday exposure." Nat. Resources & Env't 32 (2017): 8. Megahed, Naglaa A., and Ehab M. Ghoneim. "Indoor Air Quality: Rethinking rules of building design strategies in post-pandemic architecture." Environmental Research (2020): 110471. Nazaroff, William W., and Charles J. Weschler. "Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants." Atmospheric environment 38.18 (2004): 2841-2865. Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C., Joseph G. Allen, and Paloma I. Beamer. "Another invisible enemy indoors: COVID-19, human health, the home, and United States indoor air policy." Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 30.5 (2020): 773-775. Patel, Sameer, et al. "Indoor particulate matter during HOMEChem: Concentrations, size distributions, and exposures." Environmental science & technology 54.12 (2020): 7107-7116. Pluschke, Peter, and Hans Schleibinger. Indoor air pollution. Springer, 2018. Smith, Kirk R., et al. "Millions dead: how do we know and what does it mean? Methods used in the comparative risk assessment of household air pollution." Annual review of public health 35 (2014): 185-206. Sundell, Jan. "On the history of indoor air quality and health." Indoor air 14.s 7 (2004): 51-58. Schwarzenegger, Arnold. "Indoor air pollution in California." California EPA (2005). Torkmahalleh, Mehdi Amouei, et al. "Review of factors impacting emission/concentration of cooking generated particulate matter." Science of the Total Environment 586 (2017): 1046-1056. Tran, Vinh Van, Duckshin Park, and Young-Chul Lee. "Indoor air pollution, related human diseases, and recent trends in the control and improvement of indoor air quality." Internatio Venter, Zander S., et al. "COVID-19 lockdowns cause global air pollution declines." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117.32 (2020): 18984-18990.

  • Become smarter in 5 minutes by signing up for free today: http://cen.yt/mbminuteearth - Thanks to Morning Brew for sponsoring today’s video. Because there are so many different types of penises among our evolutionary relatives, we didn’t know until a recent discovery whether they all had the same origin. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: - Amniote: Vertebrates whose embryos are enclosed in a thin sac. - Cloaca: A posterior orifice used for excretion and reproduction. - Cloacal Kiss: A method that penisless amniotes use to mate, which involves males and females momentarily pressing their cloacae together. - Tuatara: Reptiles endemic to New Zealand that are the only surviving members of their ancient amniote group. - Hemipenis: One of the paired copulatory organs of lizards and snakes. - Bmp4: A protein that, when present, stifles the growth of penises in chick embryos. - Convergent Evolution: The independent evolution of similar features in different species. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Emily Willingham | Script Writer David Goldenberg | Script Editor & Narrator Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Ever Salazar | Director Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2017). “Life Expectancy” – What does this actually mean?. Our World In Data. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy-how-is-it-calculated-and-how-should-it-be-interpreted. Dendy, Arthur. 1899. “Memoirs: Outlines of the Development of the Tuatara, Sphenodon (Hatteria) punctatus.” Journal of Cell Science s2-42: 1–87. Cree, Alison. 2014. Tuatara: Biology and Conservation of a Venerable Survivor. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. Gans, Carl, James C. Gillingham, and David Lang Clark. 1984. “Courtship, Mating and Male Combat in Tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus.” Journal of Herpetology 18 (2): 194–97. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.2307/1563749. Sanger, Thomas J., Marissa L. Gredler, and Martin J. Cohn. 2015. “Resurrecting Embryos of the Tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus, to Resolve Vertebrate Phallus Evolution.” Biology Letters 11 (10): pii: 20150694. REtreieved from: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0694. Herrera, Ana María, Simone G. Shuster, Claire L. Perriton, and Martin J. Cohn. 2013. “Developmental Basis of Phallus Reduction During Bird Evolution.” Current Biology 23 (12): 1065–74. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.04.062. Brennan, Patricia L. R. 2016a. “Evolution: One Penis After All.” Current Biology 26: R29–R31. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.11.024. Willingham, Emily. 2020. Fallacy: Life Lessons from the Animal Penis. Avery. Retrieved from: https://www.amazon.com/Phallacy-Life-Lessons-Animal-Penis/dp/0593087178

  • Get a limited edition MinuteEarth YETI tumbler when you become a new patron at the $6 or above tiers or upgrade an existing pledge: https://patreon.com/minuteearth Humans are the only animals known to faint due to triggers like shock, fear, or pain; this is due to a combination of our massive brains and upright stance. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: "Fight or flight": an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that readies animals (including humans) to either resist forcibly or escape Fainting: loss of consciousness caused by a temporary lack of oxygen to the brain, also known as “syncope.” Vasovagal syncope: a type of fainting that happens when your body overreacts to an emotional trigger like being in danger, seeing blood, or even just hearing some shocking news. Tonic immobility: an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that causes some animals to relax their muscles and “freeze” in place, sometimes causing them to fall over Jump scare: a technique often used in horror films meant to scare the audience with a sudden change on screen, usually paired with a loud sound SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) | Script Writer, Narrator, and Director Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing, and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OTHER CREDITS ***************** Piano Jump Scare Stinger by TheSoundFXGuy_YT of freesound.org https://freesound.org/people/TheSoundFXGuy_YT/sounds/534218/ Licensed under CC BY 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Alboni, Paolo, and Marco Alboni. "Origin and Evolution of the Vasovagal Reflex." Vasovagal Syncope. Springer, Cham, 2015. 3-17. Alboni, P., Alboni, M. “Typical vasovagal syncope as a “defense mechanism” for the heart by contrasting sympathetic overactivity.” Clin Auton Res 27, 253–261 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-017-0446-2 Blanc, Jean-Jacques, Paolo Alboni, and David G. Benditt. "Vasovagal syncope in humans and protective reactions in animals." Ep Europace 17.3 (2015): 345-349. Bracha, H., Bienvenu, O. & Person, D. “Evolution and fear-fainting.” Clin Auton Res 16, 299 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-006-0359-y Buckey JC, Peshock RM, Blomqvist CG. “Deep venous contribution to hydrostatic blood volume change in the human leg.” Am J Cardiol. 1988 Sep 1;62(7):449-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(88)90976-9. Furst, Branko. "The Effect of Gravity and Upright Posture on Circulation." The Heart and Circulation. Springer, Cham, 2020. 319-341. Kozlowska K, Walker P, McLean L, Carrive P. “Fear and the Defense Cascade: Clinical Implications and Management.” Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2015 Jul-Aug;23(4):263-87. https://doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0000000000000065. Roelofs, Karin. "Freeze for action: neurobiological mechanisms in animal and human freezing." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 372.1718 (2017): 20160206. Sheldon, Robert S., and Roopinder K. Sandhu. "The search for the genes of vasovagal syncope." Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine 6 (2019): 175. Sun, Benjamin C., Jennifer A. Emond, and Carlos A. Camargo Jr. "Direct medical costs of syncope-related hospitalizations in the United States." The American journal of cardiology 95.5 (2005): 668-671. van Dijk JG. “Fainting in animals.” Clin Auton Res. 2003 Aug;13(4):247-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-003-0099-1.

  • Enjoy 10% off MOVA Globes with code MINUTEEARTH. Shop now on https://bit.ly/MinuteEarthGlobes All over the world, giant wave breaks appear because of underwater geology that supercharges their wave energy. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Amplitude - The distance between the crest and trough of a wave. Bathymetry - The measurement of depth of water in oceans, seas, or lakes. Nazaré Canyon - An undersea canyon just off the coast of Nazaré, Portugal, in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. It is the largest submarine canyon in Europe, reaching depths of about 5,000 meters (16,000 ft) deep and a length of about 230 kilometers (140 mi). Plunging Breaker - Occurs when there are rapid depth changes. The crest of the wave becomes very steep, and the rear of the wave violently plunges over the front. Reef Break - A location where waves break over a reef, often amplifying them. Spilling Breaker - Occurs when the seafloor slopes gradually. As the wave becomes unstable, energy is dissipated by water spilling over the crest of the wave. Swell - a slow, regular movement of the sea in rolling waves that do not break. Wave period - The time between waves. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Cameron Duke | Script Writer Kate Yoshida | Narrator David Goldenberg | Director Arcadi Garcia i Rius | Illustration, Video Editing, and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Babanin, A. V., Rogers, W. E., de Camargo, R., Doble, M., Durrant, T., Filchuk, K., Ewans, K., Hemer, M., Janssen, T., Kelly-Gerreyn, B., Machutchon, K., McComb, P., Qiao, F., Schulz, E., Skvortsov, A., Thomson, J., Vichi, M., Violante-Carvalho, N., Wang, D., & Waseda, T. (2019). Waves and Swells in High Wind and Extreme Fetches, Measurements in the Southern Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00361 Editor At Surfertoday.com. (2013, November 5). The canyon that makes waves. Surfertoday; SurferToday.com | The Ultimate Surfing News Website. Retrieved from: https://www.surfertoday.com/surfing/the-canyon-that-makes-waves Griffiths, L. S., & Porter, R. (2012). Focusing of surface waves by variable bathymetry. Applied Ocean Research, 34, 150–163. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2011.08.004 Inman, D. (2021). Living with Coastal Change - Coastal Basics - Wave Refraction Model - Jaws, Hawaii. Ucsd.edu. Retrieved from: http://coastalchange.ucsd.edu/st3_basics/p_waverefrac.html#bathymetric_map Keating, S. (2020, January 6). The story of a wave: from wind-blown ripples to breaking on the beach. The Conversation. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/the-story-of-a-wave-from-wind-blown-ripples-to-breaking-on-the-beach-128458 Pedro Proença Cunha, & Margarida, M. (2015, February). The Nazaré coast, the submarine canyon and the giant waves - a synthesis. ResearchGate; Universidade de Coimbra. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275522569_The_Nazare_coast_the_submarine_canyon_and_the_giant_waves_-_a_synthesis Pinet, P. R. (2009). Invitation to oceanography (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. The generation and propagation of ocean waves and swell. I. Wave periods and velocities | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. (2017). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Retrieved from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsta.1948.0005 Warner, S. (2020). What makes the world’s biggest surfable waves? The Conversation. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/what-makes-the-worlds-biggest-surfable-waves-150600 Warner, S. (2021). Department of Environmental Studies, Brandeis University. Personal Communication. Homepage: https://www.brandeis.edu/facultyguide/person.html?emplid=6cf46554ff6936fa51d9e22d0414e63798a5c4a1

  • To learn more about restoration action - and get involved - visit RESTOR from the Crowther Lab at https://restor.eco. Superheroes - imaginary and real - aren't all that super on their own...here's why. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: carbon sequestration: the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide productivity: the rate of generation of biomass (and therefore carbon storage) in an ecosystem SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Kate Yoshida | Script Writer and Narrator David Goldenberg | Director Arcadi Garcia i Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Bar-On, Y. M., Phillips, R., & Milo, R. (2018). The biomass distribution on Earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201711842. http://www.pnas.org/content/115/25/6506. Liang J et al. (2016). Positive biodiversity–productivity relationship predominant in global forests. Science 354: 6309. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6309/aaf8957 Liu X et al. 2018 Tree species richness increases ecosystem carbon storage in subtropical forests. Proc. R. Soc. B 285: 20181240. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2018.1240 Mistry J, Bilbao BA, Berardi A. (2016). Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371: 20150174. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2015.0174 Oehri J. et al (2020). Terrestrial land-cover type richness is positively linked to landscape-level functioning. Nature Communications 11 (1). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-14002-7 Schmitz O.J. et al. Animals and the zoogeochemistry of the carbon cycle. Science. 2018; 362. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/362/6419/eaar3213/ Sobral, M. et al. (2017). Mammal diversity influences the carbon cycle through trophic interactions in the Amazon. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1: 1670–1676. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0334-0 Soto-Navarro C, et al. (2020). Mapping co-benefits for carbon storage and biodiversity to inform conservation policy and action. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 375: 20190128. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2019.0128

  • To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 You might already know that proteins are a fundamental part of your diet, but they're much more than that. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: - Amino acids: are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain specific to each amino acid. - Proteins: are macromolecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Most proteins fold into unique 3D structures. The shape into which a protein naturally folds is known as its native conformation. - Alpha helix (α-helix): is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a right hand-helix conformation in which every backbone N−H group hydrogen bonds to the backbone C=O group of the amino acid located four residues earlier along the protein sequence. - Beta sheet (β-sheet): is a common motif of the regular protein secondary structure and consists of beta strands (β-strands) connected laterally by at least two or three backbone hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. - Ribbon diagrams: are 3D schematic representations of protein structure that shows the overall path and organization of the protein backbone in 3D. Ribbon diagrams are generated by interpolating a smooth curve through the polypeptide backbone. α-helices are shown as coiled ribbons or thick tubes, β-strands as arrows, and non-repetitive coils or loops as lines or thin tubes. CREDITS ********* Ever Salazar | Co-Writer, Narrator, Illustrator and Director David Wych | Co-writer and Consultant Aldo de Vos, Know Art | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius • David Goldenberg Julián Gustavo Gómez • Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich Henry Reich • Peter Reich • Leonardo Souza Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 OTHER CREDITS & REFERENCES ********************************** Goodsell, David (2006). Visual Methods from Atoms to Cells. Structure 13, Issue 3:347-354. doi:10.1016/j.str.2005.01.012 Protein 3D images created using Mol* (https://molstar.org/) and structure data from RCSB PDB (https://www.rcsb.org/) Mol* (D. Sehnal, A.S. Rose, J. Kovca, S.K. Burley, S. Velankar (2018) Mol*: Towards a common library and tools for web molecular graphics MolVA/EuroVis Proceedings. doi:10.2312/molva.20181103) Villin folding trajectory by Stefan Doerr - https://figshare.com/authors/Stefan_Doerr/748688 Clathrin Structure (PDB ID: 3IYV) Fotin, A., et al (2004). Molecular model for a complete clathrin lattice from electron cryomicroscopy. Nature 432: 573-579. doi:10.1038/nature03079 Immunoglobulin Structure (PDB IDs: 1IGT & 1IGY) Harris, L.J., et al (1998). Crystallographic structure of an intact IgG1 monoclonal antibody. J Mol Biol 275: 861-872. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1997.1508 ATP Synthase Structure (PDB IDs: 5ARE, 5ARI & 5FIL) Zhou, A., et al (2015). Structure and conformational states of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase by cryo-EM. ELife, 4. doi:10.7554/eLife.10180 RCSB PDB Molecule of the Month by David S. Goodsell (The Scripps Research Institute and the RCSB PDB) - https://pdb101.rcsb.org/motm/72 Photosystem II (PDB ID: 5XNL) Su, X., et al (2017). Structure and assembly mechanism of plant C2S2M2-type PSII-LHCII supercomplex. Science 357: 815-820. doi:10.1126/science.aan0327 Ribonuclease (PDB ID: 2AAS) Santoro, J., et al (1993). High-resolution three-dimensional structure of ribonuclease A in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Mol Biol 229: 722-734. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1993.1075 Myosin (PDB ID: 1B7T) Houdusse, A., et al (1999). Atomic structure of scallop myosin subfragment S1 complexed with MgADP: a novel conformation of the myosin head. Cell 97: 459-470. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80756-4

  • Get Surfshark VPN at https://surfshark.deals/minuteearth and enter code MINUTEEARTH for 83% off and 3 extra months free! The body can get a whole lot colder - but not a whole lot hotter - before we die. Why is that? LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Hyperthermia: a medical condition where an individual's body temperature is elevated beyond normal Hypothermia: a medical doncition that occurs when an individual's body loses heat faster than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low body temperature Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different Denaturation: the alteration of a protein shape through some form of external stress (for example, heat), so that it can no longer carry out its cellular function If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: A great article from Outside on hyperthermia: https://www.outsideonline.com/2398105/heat-stroke-signs-symptoms Learn more about the woman who survived the lowest known body temp: https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/the-woman-who-survived-the-lowest-body-temperature-ever SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Lepock JR (2004). Role of nuclear protein denaturation and aggregation in thermal radiosensitization, International Journal of Hyperthermia, 20:2, 115-130, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02656730310001637334 Leuenberger, P, Ganscha S, Kahraman A, Cappelletti V, PJ Boersema, Mering Cv, Claassen M, Picotti P (2017). Cell-wide analysis of protein thermal unfolding reveals determinants of thermostability Science, 355: eaai7825. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6327/eaai7825 Roti Roti J (2008) Cellular responses to hyperthermia (40–46 degrees C): cell killing and molecular events. International Journal of Hyperthermia 24(1): 3–15. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02656730701769841 Sawka MN, Leon LR, Montain SJ, Sonna LA (2011). Integrated physiological mechanisms of exercise performance, adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress. Comprehensive Physiology 1: 1883-1928. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cphy.c100082 Slovis CM, Anderson GF, Casolaro A (1982). Survival in a heat stroke victim with a core temperature in excess of 46.5 C. Annals of Emergency Medicine 11(5):269-271. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196-0644(82)80099-1