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  • This episode I describe science-supported nutrients for brain and performance (cognition) and for nervous system health generally.

    I describe 10 tools for this purpose, including specific amounts and sources for Omega-3 fatty acids which make up the "structural fat" of neurons (nerve cells) and allow them to function across our lifespan. I also review data on creatine, phosphatidylserine, anthocyanins, choline, glutamine and how they each impact brain function in healthy people seeking to reinforce and improve their cognition and in those combatting cognitive decline. I describe both food-based and supplement-based sources for these compounds, and their effective dose ranges based on peer-reviewed literature.

    Then I review the 3 factors: gut-brain signaling, perceived taste, and learned associations that combine with the metabolic and blood-sugar-elevating effects of food to determine what foods we seek and prefer. Amazingly, it's not just about what tastes good to us. Next, I explore how we can leverage the neural circuits of learned food preference toward seeking and enjoying the right foods for brain health and performance. I also review new data on non-caloric sweeteners and why consuming them with glucose-elevating foods can be detrimental, in some cases rapidly leading to insulin dysregulation. This episode covers more than 10 actionable tools for those seeking to improve and/or maintain brain function, and it explains modern neuroscience underlying of our sense of taste, our food seeking preferences and brain metabolism.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com -- code: "huberman" InsideTracker - https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman Headspace - https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer

    RETHINK EDUCATION: The Biology of Learning Featuring Dr. Andrew Huberman:

    https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Review on Anthocyanins & Cognition - https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/23/4255 Review on Creatine & Brain Health Studies - https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/2/586 Review on "Rethinking Food Reward" - www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-psych-122216-011643

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Food & Brain Function Introduction 00:02:08 Summary: Critical Aspects of Time Restricted Feeding/Fasting 00:04:19 Sponsors: ROKA, Athletic Greens, Headspace 00:08:24 Neuroplasticity Super Protocol (Zero-Cost Tools) Online 00:09:22 Eating to Enhance Brain Function & Foundational Aspects of Brain Health 00:13:00 Eating Fats for Brain Health, EFAs Phospholipids (Tool 1: 1-3g EPA Omega-3/day) 00:20:35 Phosphatidylserine (Tool 2: 300mg/day) 00:22:15 Choline, Egg Yolks (Tool 3: 1-2g/day Threshold) 00:28:26 Hydration & Electrolytes (Tool 4) 00:29:50 Liquid Fish Oil/Capsules (2-3g EPA per day; 300mg Alpha GPC 2-4X/week) 00:32:22 Creatine for Cognition (Tool 5: 5g/day) 00:36:28 Anthocyanins, Dark Skin Berries (Tool 6-10mg/day (Extract), 1-2 cups Berries) 00:41:19 L-Glutamine (Tool: 1-10g/day) & Offsetting Apnea & Inflammation 00:49:23 Neural Basis of Food Preference, Yum, Yuck, Meh; Taste, Guts, & Beliefs 00:55:25 Taste is 100% In your Head 00:59:50 Gut Neurons Controlling Food Preference: Neuropod Cells; (Tool 7: Fermented Foods) 01:06:14 Capsule Probiotics, Brain Fog 01:07:16 Learning to Like Specific Tastes: Sweetness & Brain Metabolism 01:12:11 Hard-Wiring & Soft-Wiring 01:13:25 Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners: Safe or Harmful Depends on (Glucose) Context 01:18:15 Non-Caloric Sweetener & Insulin; (Tool 8: Don’t Have w/Glucose Elevating Foods) 01:22:17 Beliefs & Thoughts; The Insula; (Tool 9: Pairing-Based Reshaping Food Preferences) 01:30:42 Liking Neuro-Healthy Foods & Bettering Brain Metabolism (Tool 10); Food Wars 01:36:05 Food Reward & Diabetes, Obesity; Important Review Article (See Caption) 01:38:28 Synthesis, Zero-Cost Support, Future Topic Suggestions, Sponsors, Supplements

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • This episode I discuss the science and practice of fasting also called time-restricted feeding. I review the data on how limiting food intake to specific portions of every 24-hour cycle (or fasting longer) impacts weight loss, fat loss specifically, liver health, mental focus, muscle, longevity and more. I explain how "fasted" is contextual, and relates to blood glucose levels and their downstream effects, and how the depth of fasting can be adjusted with behaviors such as different types of exercise, or with glucose disposal agents. I also discuss the optimal fasting protocol: and both the absolute (non-negotiable) and variable (contextual) features of a fasting/time-restricted-feeding protocol that will allow you to get the most benefits. I also discuss what does and does not break a fast, the effects of fasting on hormones like testosterone and cortisol and on fertility. I also review how different feeding windows of 8 or 10 or 4 hours differentially impact the effects of fasting, and why the classic 8 hour feeding window came to be but also might be ideal. I discuss mechanisms and offer tools to discern the optimal fasting duration and timing for you.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com -- code: "huberman" InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Helix Sleep - https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman

    RETHINK EDUCATION: The Biology of Learning Featuring Dr. Andrew Huberman

    https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network Links: Comprehensive Review On Fasting In Humans: https://bit.ly/3BwIyd7

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction, Blood Glucose & Mortality, Mice Vs. Humans 00:06:02 Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Helix 00:09:42 Neuroplasticity Protocols & Online Lecture https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M 00:11:20 Feeding, Fasting, Performance 00:13:50 Calories-In, Calories-Out (CICO); Perfect Diets 00:19:48 Feeding-Induced Health Conditions 00:25:33 Time Restricted Eating: When We Eat Is Vital 00:29:45 The Eight Hour Feeding Window 00:31:26 Feeding Deep Into the Night Is Bad (In Humans) 00:36:33 Liver Health 00:39:45 Time Restricted Feeding Protocol: Rules 00:41:35 When to Start & Stop Eating 00:45:38 Gastric Clearance, Linking Fasting to Sleep 00:52:35 Effects of Specific Categories of Food 00:55:40 Precision In Fasting: Protocol Build 00:59:30 4-6 Hour Feeding Windows 01:03:08 Protein Consumption & Timing for Muscle 01:08:13 How to Shift Your Eating Window 01:13:20 Glucose Clearing, Exercise & Compounds 01:22:37 Blood Glucose: Monitoring, mTOR & Related Pathways 01:27:40 Gut Health: Fasting, Clock Genes and Microbiota 01:29:15 Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver 01:32:00 Effects of Fasting on Hormones: Testosterone, Cortisol 01:38:40 Fertility 01:41:50 8-Hour Feeding Window: Weight Loss Without Calorie Counting 01:43:20 Eating Every-Other-Day 01:45:29 Adherence 01:47:15 Mental Focus & Clarity 01:49:12 Enhancing Weight Loss from Body Fat: Hepatic Lipase 01:53:15 What Breaks a Fast? Rules & Context 01:58:50 Artificial Sweeteners, Plant-Based Sweeteners 02:01:42 Glucose Clearing II, Cinnamon, Acidity, Salt 02:06:42 My Circadian Clock, Zero-App 02:08:20 Odd (But Common) Questions 02:09:23 Effects of Sauna & Dehydration on Blood Glucose 02:11:12 The Ideal Fasting Protocol 02:24:00 More Resources, Ways to Support Us, Supplements

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

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  • This episode I am joined by Dr. Craig Heller, Professor of Biology at Stanford University and world expert on the science of temperature regulation. We discuss how the body and brain maintain temperature under different conditions and how most everyone uses the wrong approach to cool off or heat up. Dr. Heller teaches us the best ways and in doing so, explains how to offset hyperthermia and hypothermia. He also explains how we can use the precise timing and location of cooling on our body to greatly enhance endurance and weight training performance. He describes how cooling technology discovered and engineered in his laboratory has led to a tripling of anaerobic (weight training) performance and allowed endurance athletes to run further and faster, as well as to eliminate delayed onset muscle soreness. Dr. Heller explains how heat impairs muscular and mental performance, and how to cool the brain to reduce inflammation and to enhance sleep and cognition. We discuss how anyone can apply these principles for themselves, even their dogs! Our conversation includes both many practical tools and mechanistic science.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com -- code "huberman" InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Athletic Greens - https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman

    Support Research in Huberman Lab at Stanford:

    https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Dr. Heller's Website - https://profiles.stanford.edu/h-craig-heller CoolMitt Technology - https://www.coolmitt.com

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Craig Heller, Physiology & Performance 00:02:00 Sponsors: Roka, Inside Tracker, Athletic Greens 00:06:45 Cold Showers, Ice Baths, Cryotherapy 00:10:45 Boundary Layers 00:11:55 Cooling Before Aerobic Activity to Enhance Performance 00:14:45 Anaerobic Activity Locally Increases Muscle Heat 00:16:45 Temperature Gates Our Energy Use 00:19:00 Local Versus Systemic Fatigue: Heat Is Why We Fail 00:22:10 Cooling Off: Most Methods are Counterproductive 00:26:43 Exercise-Induced Brain Fog 00:27:45 Hyperthermia 00:31:50 Best Body Sites for Cooling: Palms, Foot Pads, Upper Face 00:38:00 Cooling Your Brain via The Upper Face; Concussion 00:41:25 Extraordinary (Tripling!) Performance by Cooling the Palms 00:45:35 Enhancing Recovery, Eliminating Soreness w/Intra-workout Cooling 00:50:00 Multiple Sclerosis: Heat Sensitivity & Amelioration with Cooling 00:51:00 Enhancing Endurance with Proper Cooling 00:53:00 Cool Mitt, Ice-Cold Is Too Cold, 3 Minutes Cooling 00:58:20 How You Can Use Palmer Cooling to Enhance Performance 01:01:15 Radiation, Convection, Heat-Transfer, Role of Surface Area 01:04:40 Hypothermia Story, Ideal Re-Heating Strategy 01:11:40 Paw-lmer Cooling for Dog Health & Performance 01:12:45 Warming Up, & Varying Temperature Around the Body 01:17:35 Cooling-Enhanced Performance Is Permanent 01:19:55 Anabolic Steroids versus Palmer Cooling 01:24:00 Female Athletic Performance 01:25:18 Shivering & Cold, Metabolism 01:26:55 Studies of Bears & Hibernation, Brown Fat 01:31:10 Brown Fat Distribution & Activation In Humans 01:34:18 Brain Freeze, Ice Headache: Blood Pressure, Headache 01:37:50 Fidgeters, Non-Exercise Induced Thermogenesis 01:39:44 How Pre-Workout Drinks, & Caffeine May Inhibit Performance 01:43:42 Sleep, Cold, Warm Baths, Screens, & Socks 01:48:44 Synthesis 01:49:30 Supporting the Podcast & Scientific Research

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • This episode serves as a sort of “Dopamine Masterclass”. I discuss the immensely powerful chemical that we all make in our brain and body: dopamine. I describe what it does and the neural circuits involved. I explain dopamine peaks and baselines, and the cell biology of dopamine depletion. I include 14 tools for how to control your dopamine release for sake of motivation, focus, avoiding and combating addiction and depression, and I explain why dopamine stacking with chemicals and behaviors inevitably leads to states of underwhelm and poor performance. I explain how to achieve sustained increases in baseline dopamine, compounds that injure and protect dopamine neurons including caffeine from specific sources. I describe non-prescription supplements for increasing dopamine—both their benefits and risks—and synergy of pro-dopamine supplements with those that increase acetylcholine.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com -- code "huberman" InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Headspace - https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer

    Logitech Event - Rethink Education: The Biology of Learning

    Thursday, Sept. 30 at 12pm PT / 3pm ET Sign up here: https://info.logitech.com/ReThink-Education.html

    Support Research in Huberman Lab at Stanford:

    https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Review on Dopamine: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41583-021-00455-7 Cold Exposure & Dopamine: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs004210050065

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction & Tool 1 to Induce Lasting Dopamine 00:04:48 Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Headspace 00:09:10 Upcoming (Zero-Cost) Neuroplasticity Seminar for Educators 00:09:58 What Dopamine (Really) Does 00:15:30 Two Main Neural Circuits for Dopamine 00:18:14 How Dopamine Is Released: Locally and Broadly 00:22:03 Fast and Slow Effects of Dopamine 00:25:03 Dopamine Neurons Co-Release Glutamate 00:28:00 Your Dopamine History Really Matters 00:30:30 Parkinson’s & Drugs That Kill Dopamine Neurons. My Dopamine Experience 00:36:58 Tool 3 Controlling Dopamine Peaks & Baselines 00:40:06 Chocolate, Sex (Pursuit & Behavior), Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamine, Exercise 00:46:46 Tool 4 Caffeine Increases Dopamine Receptors 00:49:54 Pursuit, Excitement & Your “Dopamine Setpoint” 00:56:46 Your Pleasure-Pain Balance & Defining “Pain” 01:00:00 Addiction, Dopamine Depletion, & Replenishing Dopamine 01:07:50 Tool 5 Ensure Your Best (Healthy) Dopamine Release 01:15:28 Smart Phones: How They Alter Our Dopamine Circuits 01:19:45 Stimulants & Spiking Dopamine: Counterproductive for Work, Exercise & Attention 01:22:20 Caffeine Sources Matter: Yerba Mate & Dopamine Neuron Protection 01:24:20 Caffeine & Neurotoxicity of MDMA 01:26:15 Amphetamine, Cocaine & Detrimental Rewiring of Dopamine Circuits 01:27:57 Ritalin, Adderall, (Ar)Modafinil: ADHD versus non-Prescription Uses 01:28:45 Tool 6 Stimulating Long-Lasting Increases in Baseline Dopamine 01:37:55 Tool 7 Tuning Your Dopamine for Ongoing Motivation 01:47:40 Tool 8 Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Dopamine 01:53:09 Validation of Your Pre-Existing Beliefs Increases Dopamine 01:53:50 Tool 9 Quitting Sugar & Highly Palatable Foods: 48 Hours 01:55:36 Pornography 01:56:50 Wellbutrin & Depression & Anxiety 01:58:30 Tool 10 Mucuna Pruriens, Prolactin, Sperm, Crash Warning 02:01:45 Tool 11 L-Tyrosine: Dosages, Duration of Effects & Specificity 02:05:20 Tool 12 Avoiding Melatonin Supplementation, & Avoiding Light 10pm-4am 02:07:00 Tool 13 Phenylethylamine (with Alpha-GPC) For Dopamine Focus/Energy 02:08:20 Tool 14 Huperzine A 02:10:02 Social Connections, Oxytocin & Dopamine Release 02:12:20 Direct & Indirect Effects: e.g., Maca; Synthesis & Application 02:14:22 Zero-Cost & Other Ways To Support Podcast & Research

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • This episode I discuss medical research on psychedelic compounds with Dr. Matthew Johnson, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. We discuss the biology and medical clinical-trial uses of psilocybin, MDMA, ayahuasca, DMT, and LSD. Dr. Johnson teaches us what the clinical trials in his lab are revealing about the potential these compounds hold for the treatment of depression, addiction, trauma, eating disorders, ADHD, and other disorders of the mind. Dr. Johnson describes a typical psychedelic experiment in his laboratory, start to finish, including the conditions for optimal clinical outcomes. And he explains some of the potential hazards and common misconceptions and pitfalls related to psychedelic medicine. Dr. Johnson explains flashbacks, the heightened risks of certain people and age groups using psychedelics and the ever evolving legal and pharmaceutical industry landscape surrounding psychedelics. Dr. Johnson also explains how the scientific study of psychedelics is likely to set the trajectory of psychiatric medicine in the years to come. Dr. Johnson is among a small handful of researchers who have pioneered the clinical study of these powerful compounds. He has unprecedented insight into how they can be woven into other psychiatric treatments, changing ones sense of self and of reality.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    Athletic Greens - http://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman Belcampo - http://www.belcampo.com/huberman InsideTracker - http://www.insidetracker.com/huberman

    Dr. Matthew Johnson Social Media:

    Twitter: https://twitter.com/drug_researcher Instagram: https://instagram.com/drug_researcher

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Dr. Johnson’s Website at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine - https://hopkinspsychedelic.org/johnson Chris Letheby’s forthcoming book - https://amzn.to/3nMTaAs

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Matthew Johnson 00:02:10 Supporting Sponsors 00:06:40 ‘Psychedelics’ Defined 00:14:09 Hallucinations, Synesthesia, Altered Space-Time Perception 00:19:56 Serotonin & Dopamine 00:23:50 Ketamine & Glutamate 00:28:00 An Example Psychedelic Experiment 00:37:30 ‘Letting Go’ with Psychedelics 00:44:10 Our Mind’s Eye 00:48:00 Redefining Your Sense of Self 00:58:56 Exporting Psychedelic Learnings to Daily Life 01:04:36 Flashbacks 01:12:10 Ayahuasca, & ASMR, Kundalini Breathing 01:15:54 MDMA, DMT 01:26:00 Dangers of Psychedelics, Bad Trips, Long-Lasting Psychosis 01:38:15 Micro-Dosing 01:56:45 Risks for Kids, Adolescents & Teenagers; Future Clinical Trials 02:03:40 Legal Status: Decriminalization vs. Legalization vs. Regulation 02:18:35 Psychedelics for Treating Concussion & Traumatic Brain Injury 02:27:45 Shifting Trends in Psychedelic Research, Academic Culture 02:44:23 Participating in a Clinical Trial, Online Survey Studies, Breathwork 02:50:38 Conclusions, Subscribing & Supporting the HLP, Supplements

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • In this episode, I discuss ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): what it is, the common myths, and the biology and psychology of ADHD.

    I discuss both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments for ADHD, and brain-machine interface tools. I also discuss behavioral training protocols that can improve focus in people with ADHD and those without ADHD, and for people of different ages. I discuss the role of dopamine in coordinating 'default-mode' and 'task-related' neural networks, attentional "blinks" (lapses of attention) and how to overcome them, and the role of actual blinks in time perception and attention. Finally, I review some of the prescription and over-the-counter compounds for increasing focus such as Adderall, Ritalin, Modafinil and Armodafinil, the racetams, Alpha-GPC and phosphatidylserine and the role of diet for managing ADHD (and the controversies of diet for ADHD).

    The role of cell phones/technology in ADHD and ADHD-like challenges with focus are also discussed. Throughout, both basic science and clinical scenarios, as well as applicable tools and resources are covered.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    Roka - https://www.roka.com -- code "huberman" Belcampo - https://www.belcampo.com/huberman Helix Sleep - https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Support Research in the Huberman Lab at Stanford:

    https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Email Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Review of Compounds for ADHD, Smart Drugs & Focus - https://www.fbscience.com/Landmark/articles/10.52586/4948 Review of Atypical Compounds for ADHD - https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/1320423/ Study of Focus Protocol In ADHD & Non-ADHD Children - https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/13/4780

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction & Note About Diagnosis 00:03:27 Sponsors 00:07:56 ADHD vs. ADD: Genetics, IQ, Rates in Kids & Adults 00:13:00 Attention & Focus, Impulse Control 00:14:57 Hyper-focus 00:16:45 Time Perception 00:18:25 The Pile System 00:20:00 Working Memory 00:24:10 Hyper-Focus & Dopamine 00:26:40 Neural Circuits In ADHD: Default Mode Network & Task-Related Networks 00:32:57 Low Dopamine in ADHD & Stimulant Use & Abuse 00:37:10 Sugar, Ritalin, Adderall, Modafinil & Armodafinil 00:47:00 Non-Prescribed Adderall, Caffeine, Nicotine 00:49:18 How Stimulants “Teach” the Brains of ADHD Children to Focus 00:52:00 When To Medicate: A Highly Informed (Anecdotal) Case Study 00:56:35 Elimination Diets & Allergies In ADHD 01:04:46 Omega-3 Fatty Acids: EPAs & DHAs 01:07:00 Modulation vs Mediation of Biological Processes 01:10:50 Attentional Blinks 01:16:56 Open Monitoring & 17minute Focus Enhancement 01:22:50 Blinking, Dopamine & Time Perception; & Focus Training 01:30:10 Reverberatory Neural & Physical Activity 01:33:40 Adderall, Ritalin & Blink Frequency 01:35:00 Cannabis 01:37:30 Interoceptive Awareness 01:41:15 Ritalin, Adderall, Modafinil, Armodafinil; Smart Drugs & Caffeine: Dangers 01:48:05 DHA Fatty Acids, Phosphatidylserine 0:1:50:54 Ginko Biloba 01:51:45 Modafinil & Armodafanil: Dopamine Action & Orexin 01:56:19 Acetylcholine: Circuits Underlying Focus; Alpha-GPC 01:59:04 L-Tyrosine, (PEA) Phenylethylamine 02:01:23 Racetams, Noopept 02:05:15 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Combining Technology & Pharmacology 02:09:14 Smart Phones & ADHD & Sub-Clinical Focus Issues In Adults & Kids 02:14:30 Synthesis/Summary 02:16:10 Support for Podcast & Research, Supplement Resources

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • In this episode, I discuss what drives hunger and satiety, and the role our brain, stomach, fat and hormones play in regulating hunger and turning off the desire to eat more. I also address how protein is assimilated better early in the day than it is later in the day, and why those using intermittent fasting might want to shift their feeding window to earlier in the day.

    Then I delve into the topic of disorders of eating: Anorexia Nervosa, where people starve themselves and Bulimia Nervosa where people binge and purge their food. I discuss some common myths about Anorexia such as the role of media images increasing the rates of anorexia and the myth of the "perfectionist" anorexic. I also review the symptoms, and the brain and chemical systems disrupted in this condition. I explain how anorexics become hyperaware of the fat content of foods and develop reflexive habits of fat-hyperawareness. Then I discuss the most effective treatments ranging from family-based models to those that target the habitual nature of low-fat/calorie food choices. I also discuss new more experimental clinical trials on MDMA, Psilocybin and Ibogaine for Anorexia, and both their promise and risks

    I review the latest work on binge eating disorder and brain stimulation, drug treatments and thyroid disruption in Bulimia and why the treatments for Bulimia are so similar to those for ADHD. Finally, I discuss "cheat days," body dysmorphia and the growing list of novel forms of eating disorders start to finish. As always, science and science-based tools are discussed.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    Belcampo - https://www.belcampo.com/huberman -- code "huberman" Headspace - https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer Athletic Greens - https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman

    Support Research in Huberman Lab at Stanford:

    https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Join Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Ingesting Protein in the Morning Supports Muscle Maintenance & Growth: https://bit.ly/3DPlms7 Studies Using Virtual Reality to Explore Eating & Hunger & Body Image: https://bit.ly/3BGaDya https://bit.ly/2WWGRq8

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction: Fasting, & Defining Healthy Eating 00:08:55 Morning Protein Is Important 00:22:04 Sponsors 00:26:29 Defining & Diagnosing Eating Disorders 00:29:00 Anorexia Nervosa (Overview & Myths) 00:33:44 Bulimia (Overview & Myths) 00:37:35 Binge Eating Disorders, EDNOS, OSFEDS, Pica 00:39:44 What is Hunger? What is Satiety? 00:42:00 Neuronal & Hormonal “Accelerators & Brakes” on Eating 00:46:17 Fat, Leptin & Fertility & Metabolic Dysfunctions in Obesity 00:50:30 Why We Overeat 00:55:30 Homeostasis & Reward Systems/Decisions 00:59:58 Anorexia 01:04:28 The Cholesterol Paradox 01:06:13 Psychological vs. Biological/Genetic Factors in Anorexia 01:09:44 Chemical Imbalances, Serotonergic Treatments 01:12:56 Altered Habits & Rewards in Anorexia: Hyperacuity for Fat Content 01:18:28 Brain Areas for Reward Based Decision Making vs. Habits 01:24:06 Habit-Reward Circuits Are Flipped in Anorexics: Reward for Deprivation 01:28:30 How Do You Break a Habit? 01:33:23 Family Based Models, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 01:35:39 MDMA, Psilocybin, Clinical Trials, Ibogaine 01:40:35 Anabolic vs. Catabolic Exercise, Spontaneous Movements, NEAT 01:43:23 Distorted Self Image in Anorexia 01:47:54 Bulimia & Binge-Eating, “Cheat Days”, Thyroid Hormone 01:53:05 Inhibitory Control, Impulsivity, Adderall, Wellbutrin 01:58:00 Direct Brain Stimulation: Nucleus Accumbens 02:04:28 Anorexia/Reward. vs Bulimia/Binging 02:05:45 Healthy Eating Revisited 02:10:55 Synthesis, Body Dysmorphias 02:14:15 Support: Podcast, & Research Studies

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • In this episode, I interview Dr. Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., Professor of Biology, Neurology & Neurosurgery at Stanford University. We discuss stress, what defines short-term versus long-term stress, and how stress can be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the context. We also discuss stress mitigation and how our sense of control over stress mitigation techniques, including exercise, determine health outcomes. Dr. Sapolsky explains some of the key effects of the hormone testosterone — how it can amplify pre-existing tendencies for aggression or sexual behavior, but that it does not produce those behaviors per se. He also explains how testosterone impacts our social hierarchies, sense of confidence, and willingness to embrace challenges of different kinds. He also explains how our behaviors and perceptions shape testosterone levels. And we discuss estrogen and the powerful role it plays in brain development, health and longevity. Finally, we discuss free will, what it means to have free will, and if we have any free will, including how knowledge alone might allow us to make better decisions for ourselves and society.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://roka.com - use code "huberman" InsideTracker - https://insidetracker.com/huberman Belcampo - https://belcampo.com/huberman

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Join Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Dr. Sapolsky's most recent book, "Behave: The Biology of Humans At Our Best & Worst": https://amzn.to/3yrZ6k7 Support Research in the Huberman Lab at Stanford on Stress, Sleep & Human Performance: https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction: Dr. Robert Sapolsky 00:02:26 Sponsors: Roka, Inside Tracker, Belcampo 00:06:30 Stress: Short & Long-Term, Good & Bad 00:09:11 Valence & Amygdala 00:11:00 Testosterone: Common Myths vs. Actual Truths 00:15:15 Behaviors that Affect Testosterone 00:17:20 Mindsets & Contexts that Affect Testosterone 00:20:28 How Finger Length Ratios Reflect Prenatal Hormone Levels 00:22:30 Aggression: Male-Female, Female-Male, & Female-Female 00:24:05 Testosterone: The Challenge Hypothesis 00:29:20 How Dopamine Impacts Testosterone & Motivation 00:32:32 Estrogen: Improves Brain & Longevity BUT TIMING IS KEY 00:39:40 Are Testosterone & Sperm Counts in Males Really Dropping? 00:42:15 Stress Mitigation & Our Sense of Control 00:51:35 How Best to Buffer Stress 00:57:04 Power of Perception, Choice & Individual Differences 01:00:32 Context-Setting, Prefrontal Cortex & Hierarchy 01:11:20 How Dr. Sapolsky Accomplishes Deep Thinking 01:13:17 Do We Have Free Will? 01:20:50 How to Apply Knowledge & Learning 01:23:44 Robert’s New Book: “Determined: The Science of Life Without Free Will” 01:28:27 Reflections, Support of Podcast, & Supporting Stress Research

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

  • This episode, I explain what major depression is at the biological and psychological level and the various treatments that peer-reviewed studies have revealed can help prevent and treat depression. I explain the three major chemical systems that are altered in depression: norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. I discuss genetic predispositions to depression and how stress, thyroid hormone and cortisol play a role in many forms of depression. I also discuss inflammation as a common feature of many depression symptoms. I review 8 specific science-supported protocols for treating and avoiding depression, including EPA fatty acids (which have been shown to rival certain prescription treatments), how exercise protects against depression, studies of creatine, adjusting dopamine balance and more. I also discuss the results of ongoing clinical trials for ketamine and psilocybin for depression, how these compounds work and finally, I review how ketogenic diets can help in certain cases of depression, especially treatment-resistant major depression.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Athletic Greens - https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman Belcampo - https://www.belcampo.com/huberman -- code "huberman"

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Join Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Review of EPAs for the Treatment of Depression - https://bit.ly/2Wl15ti Review of Creatine for the Treatment of Depression - https://www.mdpi.com/520864 Recent Study on the Clinical Use of Psilocybin for Treatment of Depression - https://bit.ly/3sFSGMM

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Mood Disorders & Maintaining Mental Health (Protocol 1) 00:07:10 Sponsors 00:11:15 Major Depression 00:18:40 “Anti-Self” Confabulation 00:21:42 Autonomic (Vegetative) Symptoms of Depression 00:26:58 Norepinephrine, Dopamine & Serotonin 00:31:50 SSRIs (Prozac, Zoloft, etc.): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors 00:37:00 Epinephrine/Motor Functions, Dopamine/Motivation & Craving, Serotonin/Emotions 00:39:33 Physical & Emotional Pain are Linked: Substance P 00:41:50 Hormones & Depression: Thyroid & Cortisol 00:46:50 Genetic Susceptibility to Depression: Impact of Stress 00:50:50 Understanding Biological Mechanism Is Key: Recipes versus Skills 00:52:50 Tools for Dealing with Depression: Logic & Implementation (Protocol 2) 00:56:25 Brain Inflammation & Mental State: Cytokines, Prostaglandins, etc. 00:59:20 Protocol 3: Essential Fatty Acids (Omega-3, EPAs: Eicosapentaenoic Acid)* 01:02:50 How EPAs Help Offset Depression: Serotonin Synthesis, Kynurenine, Quinolinic Acid 01:05:25 Protocol 4: How Exercise Offsets Depression 01:11:44 Protocol 5: Creatine Monohydrate, Forebrain Function & NMDA receptors* 01:20:30 Protocol 6*: Ketamine, PCP (*Prescription-Only), & NMDA-Receptor Function 01:33:08 Protocol 7*: Psychedelics (*In Clinical Trials) for Major Depression: Psilocybin* 01:47:00 Protocol 8: Ketogenic Diet, GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) 01:54:50 Summary of Protocols Covered 02:00:10 Support & Additional Resources

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • This episode I interview Dr. Anna Lembke, MD, Chief of the Stanford Addiction Medicine Dual Diagnosis Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Lembke is a psychiatrist expert in treating addictions of all kinds: drugs, alcohol, food, sex, video games, gambling, food, medication, etc. Dr. Lembke is also an expert in the opioid crisis, and the author of Dopamine Nation: Finding Balance in the Age of Indulgence (https://amzn.to/3AHHGBp).

    We discuss the biology and psychology of why people become addicted to certain substances and behaviors and the key role that our "dopamine balance" plays in creating addiction. We also discuss the science and practice of how to conquer addictions, why people relapse and how to avoid relapsing. Dr. Lembke also shares her expertise on topics closely related to addiction such as community, shame and lying and she explains why telling the truth—even about the most basic things in daily life, adjusts dopamine levels in our brain.

    This episode is an important one for anyone struggling with addictions of any kind, for their friends and families and for health care professionals. It is also for anyone who has defeated addiction and is determined to stay clean. Last but not least, it helps explain why all humans do what we do, and how we can all maintain a healthy sense of pleasure seeking in life.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com -- code: huberman InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Headspace - https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Join the Neural Network - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Dr. Anna Lembke Links:

    Website: https://bit.ly/3iPtGje Stanford Profile: https://stanford.io/3AI9SEu Dopamine Nation (new book): https://amzn.to/3AHHGBp

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Dr. Anna Lembke, Addiction Expert 00:02:25 Disclaimer & Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Headspace 00:07:00 Dopamine, Happiness & Impulsivity 00:15:56 What Is Pleasure? 00:18:20 Addiction, Boredom & Passion for Life 00:24:00 Pain-Pleasure Balance Controls Addiction 00:29:10 Dopamine Deficits, Anhedonia 00:30:47 Are All Addictions the Same? 00:35:38 Boredom & Anxiety Lead to Creativity 00:40:35 Finding Your Passion Starts with Boredom & Action Steps 00:50:05 How to Break an Addiction 00:55:25 Relapse, Craving & Triggers 01:07:40 Can People Get Addicted To “Sobriety”? 01:11:45 Are We All Wired for Addiction? 01:15:57 Bizarre Addiction 01:18:14 Recovered Addicts Are Heroes 01:20:10 Lying, Truth Telling, Guilt & Shame 01:30:40 Clinical Applications of: Ibogaine, Ayahuasca, Psilocybin & MDMA 01:40:20 Social Media Addiction 01:51:25 Narcissism 01:53:30 Goal Seeking, Success & Surprise 01:58:10 Reciprocity 02:01:15 Closing Comments, Resources

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • This episode I discuss our sense of pain and pleasure: where and how they each arise in our mind and body and various ways to control their intensity. I discuss the science of behavioral tools like acupuncture and hypnosis and directed pressure, including the neural circuits they each activate to modulate our experience of pain or pleasure. I also discuss whole body pain, pain "syndromes" and novel pain relief compounds such as Acetyl-L-Carnitine, SAMe and Agmatine. I discuss neuroplasticity of the pain system and the key role that visual perception plays in pain modulation. Finally, I address the link between dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin, with arousal, pleasure and pain. As always, both basic science and various protocols are described.

    Note: The description of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) was intentionally simplified and does not include mention of dorsal horn spinal relay neurons, etc. For an excellent full text review of this anatomy and circuits for touch sensing, please see: https://bit.ly/3jH9CPf

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Helix Sleep - https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman Athletic Greens - https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Join the Neural Network - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Instagram discussion with Dr. Sean Mackey, MD, PhD - https://www.instagram.com/p/CMVq0X8Bk1D/ Agmatine study - https://bit.ly/3CtTwRn Mechanistic basis of acupuncture - https://bit.ly/2VHi0pz

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Skin, Pain, Pleasure 00:01:50 Protocol 1: Maximizing Motivation (with Dopamine & Pleasure) 00:07:12 Sponsors: InsideTracker, Helix Sleep, Athletic Greens 00:12:04 Pleasure & Pain, & Skin Sensors 00:18:13 Sensing Touch with Your Brain: Magnification of Feet, Hands, Lips, Face, Genitals 00:22:16 Two-Point Discrimination, Dermatomes 00:28:11 Thoughts & Genes That Make Physical Pain Worse 00:33:45 Expectations, Anxiety, & Pain Threshold 00:40:27 Protocol 2: Cold Sensing Is Relative; Getting Into Cold Water 00:45:22 Protocol 3: Heat Is Absolute 00:48:10 Injury & Pain 00:52:04 Protocol 4: Plasticity of Pain: Key Role of Vision 00:58:08 Sensing Disparate Body Parts As Merged 01:01:00 Pain “Syndromes”, Psychogenic Fever, “Psychosomatics” 01:04:40 Fibromyalgia, Naltrexone, Protocol 5: Acetyl-L-Carnitine 01:12:24 Protocol 6: Agmatine, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate* 01:17:27 Acupuncture: Mechanism, Non-Responders, Itch & Inflammation 01:28:20 Laser Photobiomodulation, Protocol 7: Hypnosis (reveri.com) 01:30:00 Protocol 8: Pressure-Based Pain Relief, “Gate Theory of Pain (Relief)” 01:37:53 Redheads & Pain Thresholds, Endogenous Opioids 01:44:02 Protocol 8: Love & Pain, Dopamine 01:49:23 Pleasure & Reproduction, Dopamine & Serotonin, Oxytocin 01:51:40 Protocol 9: PEA, L-Phenylalanine (Precursor to Tyrosine) 01:55:40 Contextual Control of Pleasure by Autonomic Arousal, Dopamine Baselines 01:59:40 Pleasure-Pain Balance 02:01:24 Protocol 10: Controlling Pleasure, Dopamine & Motivation Over Time 02:06:40 Protocol 11: Immediate, Non-Goal-Directed Pleasure, PAG 02:08:40 Direction of Touch: Pleasure Versus Pain, Arousal & Touch “Sensitivity” 02:13:00 Synthesis & How to Conceptualize Pain and Pleasure, Support

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • In this episode, my guest is Dr. Matt Walker, Professor of Neuroscience and Psychology and the Founder & Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also the author of the international best-selling book Why We Sleep and the host of "The Matt Walker Podcast." We discuss the biology of sleep, including its various stages and what specifically happens to those stages when we don't get enough sleep. We also discuss the effects of sunlight, caffeine, alcohol, naps, hormones, exercise, marijuana, sexual activity, and various supplements on sleep. The episode consists of both basic science information and many science-supported actionable tools.

    Dr. Matthew Walker:

    Podcast - https://www.sleepdiplomat.com/podcast Twitter - https://twitter.com/sleepdiplomat Instagram - https://instagram.com/drmattwalker Website - https://www.sleepdiplomat.com

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com -- code: huberman InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Belcampo - https://www.belcampo.com/huberman -- code: huberman

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Neural Network - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Matt Walker 00:02:00 Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Belcampo 00:06:00 What Is Sleep? 00:10:20 REM (Rapid Eye Movement) aka 'Paradoxical Sleep' 00:16:15 Slow Wave Sleep aka 'Deep Sleep' 00:24:00 Compensating For Lost Sleep 00:32:20 Waking in the Middle Of The Night 00:39:48 Uberman (Not Huberman!) Sleep Schedule 00:42:48 Viewing Morning SUNLight 00:49:20 Caffeine 01:07:54 Alcohol 01:14:30 Growth Hormone & Testosterone 01:16:14 Emotions, Mental Health & Longevity 01:20:40 Books vs. Podcasts 01:21:20 Lunchtime Alcohol 01:25:00 Marijuana/CBD 01:36:00 Melatonin 01:54:14 Magnesium 01:58:10 Valerian, Kiwi, Tart Cherry, Apigenin 02:15:00 Tryptophan & Serotonin 02:19:24 Naps & Non-Sleep-Deep-Rest (NSDR) 02:28:23 Is It Possible To Get Too Much Sleep? 02:34:35 Sex, Orgasm, Masturbation, Oxytocin, Relationships 02:47:30 Unconventional Yet Powerful Sleep Tips 02:59:10 Connecting to & Learning More from Dr. Walker 03:04:42 The New Dr. Matt Walker Podcast, Reviews & Support

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • This episode I describe how the organs of the body influence the function and health of our brain and how our brain controls our bodily organs. The conscious awareness of this brain-body dialogue is called interoception. I describe how two factors- mechanical forces (e.g., pressure, pain, volume, etc.) and chemical factors (e.g., gut acidity, microbiome diversity, etc.) combine to influence our moods, control inflammation, immune system, recovery from injury and more. I explain how specific actions of our lungs, heart, spleen, and diaphragm, control our brain via the vagus nerve and other neural pathways. I describe 11 science-supported protocols for enhancing brain-body health and the logic behind them.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com - code: huberman InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Headspace - https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Join the Neural Network - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Sonnenburg, Cell Press Study - https://bit.ly/SonnenburgCellPress

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Your Sense of Self: Interoception 00:01:25 Protocol 1: Fermented Foods, Not Fiber, to Reduce Inflammation 00:03:30 Attributions 00:08:22 Main Drivers of Feelings & Performance 00:11:45 Brain-Body: A Mechanical & Chemical Dialogue 00:17:50 LDB (Lung-Diaphragm-Brain) Dialogue 00:21:00 Protocols 2, 3, 4: Control Heart Rate With Breathing 00:29:08 Sensing Lung Pressure: Piezo Receptors 00:30:54 Carbon Dioxide, From Air to Blood 00:34:02 Protocol 5: Alert While Calm 00:40:50 Baroreceptors: Hering-Breuer Reflex 00:42:47 Gut Volume & The Desire to Open Your Mouth 00:48:18 Protocol 6: Enhancing Gut-To-Brain Communication, Fasting 00:51:50 Intestines, Fatty Acids, Amino Acids & Sugar 00:57:00 Protocol 7: Reducing Sugar Cravings with Specific Amino Acid Nutrients 00:58:58 Gut Acidity (Is Good) 01:02:20: Improving Nasal Microbiome 01:04:13 Inflammation & Microbiome: Fiber vs. Fermented 01:11:15 Protocol 8: Reducing Inflammation & Enhancing Brain Function w/Fermented Foods 01:13:10 Leaking Guts, Auto-Immune function & Glutamine 01:15:50 Gut Acidity: HCl (hydrochloric acid), Pepsin 01:18:30 Probiotics & Brain Fog 01:21:45 Nausea: Happens in Your Brain; Area Postrema 01:28:25 Protocol 9: Reducing Nausea: Ginger, Peppermint, CBD, etc. 01:30:40 Fever: Triggers and Control Knobs: OVLT 01:37:00 Protocol 10: Cooling the Blood Properly 01:38:53 Sensing Feelings, Vagus Nerve, Stress 01:41:50 Mental Emotions Reflect Bodily Conditions 01:45:00 Sensing Other People’s Emotions via the Body 01:46:00 Protocol 11: Increasing Interoception, Sensing Heartbeat 01:50:40 Conclusions & Resources

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • Dr. Lex Fridman PhD, is a scientist at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), working on robotics, artificial intelligence, autonomous vehicles and human-robot interactions. He is also the host of the Lex Fridman Podcast where he holds conversations with academics, entrepreneurs, athletes and creatives. Here we discuss humans, robots, and the capacity they hold for friendship and love. Dr. Fridman also shares with us his unique dream for a world where robots guide humans to be the best versions of themselves, and his efforts to make that dream a reality.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com - code: huberman InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Athletic Greens - https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman

    Connect with Dr. Lex Fridman:

    Instagram - https://instagram.com/lexfridman/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/lexfridman Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman/ YouTube - https://www.youtube.com/lexfridman Podcast - https://lexfridman.com/podcast/

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Join the Neural Network - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Hedgehog and the Fog - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ThmaGMgWRlY

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction: Lex Fridman 00:07:35 What is Artificial Intelligence? 00:26:46 Machine & Human Learning 00:32:21 Curiosity 00:36:55 Story Telling Robots 00:40:48 What Defines a Robot? 00:44:30 Magic & Surprise 00:47:37 How Robots Change Us 00:49:35 Relationships Defined 01:02:29 Lex’s Dream for Humanity 01:11:33 Improving Social Media 01:16:57 Challenges of Creativity 01:21:49 Suits & Dresses 01:22:22 Loneliness 01:30:09 Empathy 01:35:12 Power Dynamics In Relationships 01:39:11 Robot Rights 01:40:20 Dogs: Homer & Costello 01:52:41 Friendship 01:59:47 Russians & Suffering 02:05:38 Public vs. Private Life 02:14:04 How To Treat a Robot 02:17:12 The Value of Friendship 02:20:33 Martial Arts 02:31:34 Body-Mind Interactions 02:33:22 Romantic Love 02:42:51 The Lex Fridman Podcast 02:55:54 The Hedgehog 03:01:17 Concluding Statements

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • In this episode, I discuss science-supported tools for enhancing focus, learning, creativity, sleep, physical strength and endurance and brain and body health. I explain each protocol in detail, the rationale behind it, and how the protocol can be adjusted depending on individual needs. I set these tools in the context of a 24-hour day as a way of framing how one might incorporate these tools and protocols into their own daily routine.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com - code: huberman InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Headspace - https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Neural Network - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction: Protocols for sleep, mood, focus, exercise creativity 00:04:08 Sponsors 00:08:50 Protocol 1: Record Your Daily Waking Time & Temperature Minimum 00:12:07 Protocol 2: Self-Generate Forward Motion (Outdoors) 00:17:00 Protocol 3: View Natural Light For 10-30min Every Morning 00:22:43 What To Do If You Can’t View The Sun: Blue Light 00:26:50 Protocol 4: Hydrate Correctly 00:28:00 Protocol 5: Delay Caffeine 90-120m After Waking 00:30:48 Protocol 6: Fast (or Fat-Fast) Until Noon 00:32:30 What Actually Breaks A Fast & What Doesn’t? 00:34:30 Fat Loss & Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP1), Yerba Mate, Guayusa Tea 00:37:30 Protocol 7: Optimize Deep Work: Visual Elevation, Ultradian Cycles, White Noise 00:48:30 Optimal Time of Day To Do Hard Mental Work 00:52:07 Protocol 8: Optimal Exercise; 3:2 Ratio 01:03:54 Tools for Training & Mental Focus: Fasting, Salt, Stimulants, Alpha-GPC 01:10:00 Protocol 9: Eat For Brain Function & Mood 01:17:39 Protocol 10: Get Your Testosterone & Estrogen In An Ideal Range 01:24:00 Protocol 11: Reset the Mind & Body, Enhance Neuroplasticity, Reveri.com 01:31:15 Protocol 12: Hydrate Correctly, Nap Rules 01:33:29 Protocol 13: View Late Afternoon/Evening Light To Support Sleep & Dopamine 01:39:00 Protocol 14: Eat Dinner That Promotes Serotonin, Calm Sleep 01:44:27 Protocol 15: Optimize Falling & Staying Asleep; Tools & Supplements That Work 01:55:00 Protocol 16: Preventing Middle of the Night Waking 01:59:10 Protocol 17: Weekends, Recovering From A Poor Nights Sleep 02:05:20 Neural Network, Supplement Sources, Sponsors

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • This episode I describe how our ears and nervous system decode sound waves and gravity to allow us to hear and make sense of sounds. I also describe protocols for rapid learning of sound and other types of information. I discuss sound localization, doppler effects (sound motion), pitch perception and how we isolate sounds in noisy environments. I also review the scientific findings on binaural beats and white noise and how they can improve learning. Other topics and protocols include tinnitus, sea sickness, ear movement, ear growth and the science-supported ways we can all accelerate learning using "gap effects".

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com - code: huberman InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Headspace - https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Neural Network - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Links:

    Review on spacing effects and learning: https://bit.ly/3qM6bto Micro-rest and accelerated learning: https://bit.ly/3hitXKM Ear movement: https://bit.ly/2TrS9Bf Ears making sounds, hormones: https://bit.ly/3yneKgV Binaural beats: review and references: https://bit.ly/36fggFO

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Overview of Topics 00:02:20 Protocol: New Data for Rapid Learning 00:09:10 Introduction: Hearing & Balance 00:13:53 How We Perceive Sounds 00:21:56 Your Hearing Brain (Areas) 00:23:48 Localizing Sounds 00:28:00 Ear Movement: What It Means 00:33:00 Your Ears (Likely) Make Sounds: Role of Hormones, Sexual Orientation 00:35:30 Binaural Beats: Do They Work? 00:43:54 White Noise Can Enhance Learning & Dopamine 00:51:00 Headphones 00:55:51 White Noise During Development: Possibly Harmful 01:03:25 Remembering Information, & The Cocktail Party Effect 01:12:55 How to Learn Information You Hear 01:18:10 Doppler 01:22:43 Tinnitus: What Has Been Found To Help? 01:30:40 Aging: How Big Are Your Ears? 01:35:00 Balance: Semi-Circular Canals 01:40:35 A Vestibular Experiment 01:43:15 Improve Your Sense of Balance 01:48:55 Accelerating Balance 01:51:55 Self-Generated Forward Motion 01:56:25 Dizzy versus Light-Headed 01:58:38 Motion Sickness Solution 02:01:23 Synthesis

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

  • Dr. Karl Deisseroth, MD, PhD, is a Clinical Psychiatrist and scientist who directs a bioengineering research laboratory at Stanford University School of Medicine. His work aims to understand and develop treatments for disorders of the mind such as depression, attention deficit disorders (ADHD & ADD), autism, schizophrenia, anxiety, eating disorders, borderline personality and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We discuss his experience treating his patients and his laboratory’s mission to find and develop cures for mental disease and tools for probing how the brain works.

    Dr. Karl Deisseroth:

    Twitter: https://twitter.com/KarlDeisseroth New book: https://amzn.to/3diiKHG Lab Website: https://web.stanford.edu/group/dlab

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com - code: huberman InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Athletic Greens - https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Neural Network - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction 00:07:41 Using Language to Understand the Mind 00:12:19 Blood Tests For Mental Disease 00:13:38 The Largest Challenges Facing Treatment of Mental Health 00:20:21 Predicting Depression & Suicide 00:22:47 Drugs That Work for Brain Illness 00:27:01 What Would A Cure For the Broken Mind Look Like? 00:32:23 Channelopsins: Tools For Understanding & Treating the Mind 00:39:10 Curing Blindness with Channelopsins 00:41:58 Why Karl Became a Scientist 00:47:10 Vagus Nerve In Depression 00:54:12 Challenges To Overcome for Treating Mental Illness with Channelopsins 00:58:34 Using the Dialogue with Patients to Guide Treatment 01:00:52 How Our Eyes Reveal Our Mental Health 01:06:04 Controlling Structures Deep In the Brain 01:08:23 The Most Effective Drugs Often Have the Most Side Effects 01:09:50 Do Psychiatrists Take the Drugs They Prescribe 01:14:15 Moving From Experimental Tools To Novel Treatments 01:16:00 Brain-Machine Interfaces & Neuralink 01:19:30 ADHD & Dr. Deissroth’s Approach To Focusing His Mind 01:26:36 How Dr. Deisseroth Balances A Career In Medicine, Science & Family 01:35:41 New Ways of Exploring Brains: CLARITY 01:38:49 What Is Special About the Human Brain? 01:46:03 Psychedelics 01:54:12 MDMA 01:57:15 Dr. Deisseroth’s New Book “Projections: A Story of Emotions” 01:59:42 Connecting with Dr. Deisseroth on Twitter

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • This episode I explain how we sense chemicals by way of smell, taste and pheromones. How things smell and taste and chemicals in the tears, breath, and on the skin of others have a profound effect on how we feel, what we do and our hormones. I explain the 3 types of responses to smell, the 5 types of tastes, the possible existence of sixth taste sense and how the act of sniffing can make us learn and focus better. I explain how smell and taste reflect brain health and can be used to assess and even promote brain regeneration. I discuss how eating specific categories of foods makes us crave more of those foods. Both basic science and protocols are described including how to make sour things taste sweet and how to develop a heightened sense of smell and taste.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com - code: huberman InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Athletic Greens - https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website: https://hubermanlab.com

    Links:

    What Is Color? By Arielle & Joann Eckstut https://www.amazon.com/What-Color-Questions-Answers-Science/dp/1419734512 The smell of tears lowers testosterone DOI: 10.1126/science.1198331 Inhaling (sniffing) improves non olfactory attention & cognition: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31089297/ Smelling Salts & Improved Athletic Performance https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28922211/ Taste Receptors Are Expressed By Ovaries & Testes doi:10.1093/molehr/gat009

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction 00:06:02 Sensing Chemicals: Smell, Taste & Chemicals That People Make To Control Each Other 00:09:10 Vision Protocols Recap (Brief): Near-Far Viewing & 2 hours/day outside, & Correction 00:12:20 Color Vision: Excellent Resource: What is Color? (The Book) 00:13:54 How We Sense Chemicals: Enter Our Nose, Mouth, Eyes, Skin 00:17:28 The Chemicals From Other People’s Tears Lower Testosterone & Libido 00:21:16 SMELL: Sniffing, A Piece of Your Brain In Your Nose, 3 Responses To Smells 00:24:40 Smells and Memory: Why They Are So Powerfully Associated 00:26:40 Pheromone Effects: Spontaneous Miscarriage, Males & Timing Female Puberty 00:28:56 Sniffing Creates Alertness & If Done Properly Can Help You Focus & Learn Better 00:34:00 Protocol 1: Sniffing (Nothing) 10-15X Enhances Your Ability to Smell & Taste 00:35:50 Smelling Salts, Ammonia & Adrenaline 00:38:25 How You Can Become A Human Scent Hound, Detecting Cancer, & Tasting Better 00:43:45 Smell As A Readout Of Brain Health & Longevity; Regaining Lost Sense Of Smell 00:48:30 Dopamine, Sense Of Smell, New Neurons & New Relationships 00:50:20 Why Brain Injury Causes Loss Of Smell; Using Smell To Gauge & Speed Recovery 00:53:33 Using Smell To Immediately Becoming Physically Stronger 00:54:40 Smelling In Our Dreams, Active Sniffing In Sleep, Sniffing As a Sign Of Consciousness 00:57:35 Mint Scents Create Alertness By Activating Broad Wake-Up Pathways Of Your Nervous 00:59:48 Protocol 2 Pleasant Or Putrid: The Microwave Popcorn Test, Cilantro, Asparagus, Musk 01:03:00 Skunks, Costello, All Quiet On The Western Front 01:04:32 TASTE: Sweet, Salty, Bitter, Umami, Sour; Your Tongue, Gustatory Nerve, NST, Cortex 01:08:45 Energy, Electrolytes, Poisons, Gagging, Amino Acid & Fatty Acid Sensing, Fermentation 01:13:48 Our 6th Sense of Taste: FAT Sensing 01:15:05 Gut-Brain: Your Mouth As An Extension Of Your Gut; Burned Mouth & Regeneration 01:19:30 Protocol 3: Learn To Be A Super-Taster By Top-Down Behavioral Plasticity 01:22:20 The Umami-Sweet Distinction: Tigers Versus Pandas. Aggression Versus Passivity 01:25:05 Eating More Plants Versus Eating More Meat, Cravings and Desire 01:27:15 Food That Makes You Feel Good Or Bad: Taste Receptors On Our Testes Or Ovaries 01:30:05 Biological Basis For The Sensuality of Umami and Sweet Foods 01:32:28 Appetitive & Aversive Sensing: Touching Certain Surfaces, Tasting Certain Foods 01:33:35 Amino Acids Are Key To Life, The Maillard Reaction, Smell-Taste Merge, Food Texture 01:39:00 How Processed Food Make You Crave More Processed Foods 01:39:44 Protocol 4: Invert Your Sense of Sweet & Sour: Miracle Fruit; Swapping Bitter & Sweet 01:43:03 Pheromones, Desire To Continue Mating: Coolidge Effect Occurs In Males & Females 01:46:40 Do Women Influence Each Others Menstrual Cycles? 01:49:19 Recognizing the Smell Of Your Romantic Partner 01:50:30 Differences In Odor Detection Ability, Effects Of Hormones 01:53:00 We Rub The Chemicals Of Others On Our Eyes and Skin, Bunting Behavior 01:56:40 Summary, Zero-Cost Ways To Support Us, Instagram, New Website, Sponsors, Patreon

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • This episode I describe how we see, meaning how our eyes focus, convert light information into electricity the rest of the brain can understand and how our brain creates the incredible thing we experience as “sight”. I also describe how we can train and support our visual system to improve at any age. I describe more than a dozen protocols to support depth perception, offset near-sightedness, improve mood, sleep, and our ability to focus (both visual focus and our mental focus generally). I also explain how to use eyesight to improve our levels of alertness and why visual hallucinations, lazy eyes and colorblindness occur. I also describe various compounds that may assist in supporting visual health and possibly improve our vision. Many simple, zero-cost protocols and a lot of scientific mechanisms are covered in this episode in clear language anyone can understand-- it is for anyone that values their brain and whether eyesight, young, adult-age or advanced age.

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com - code: huberman InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Helix Sleep - https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website: https://hubermanlab.com Join the Neural Network: https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Link to eye exercise videos for smooth pursuit, amblyopia, etc. (Numbering of videos does correspond to numbers in episode caption.) https://www.youtube.com/c/VisualExercises/videos

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction 00:04:51 Protocol: Concurrent Training For Endurance, Strength, Hypertrophy 00:07:24 The Senses, Vision, Seeing & What We Should All Do To See Better 00:10:35 Our Eyes: What They Really Do, & How They Work 00:14:30 Converting Light Into Electricity Language: Photoreceptors, Retinal Ganglion Cells 00:17:00 We Don’t See Anything Directly: It Is All A Comparison Of Reflected Light 00:19:35 Dogs, Cats, Snakes, Squirrels, Shrimps, Diving Birds, & You(r View Of The World) 00:24:05 Everything You See Is A Best Guess, Blind Spots 00:25:50 Depth Perception 00:28:00 Subconscious Vision: Light, Mood, Metabolism, Dopamine; Frog’s Skin In Your Eyes 00:32:00 Blue-Yellow Light, Sunlight; & Protocol 1 For Better Biology & Psychology; 00:35:00 Protocol 2: Prevent & Offset Near-Sightedness (Myopia): Outdoors 2 Hours Per Day 00:42:00 Improving Focus: Visual & Mental; Accommodation, Your Pupils & Your Bendy Lens 00:48:50 Protocol 3: Distance Viewing For 20min For Every 90 Minutes of “Close Viewing” 00:52:20 Protocol 4: Self-Generated Optic Flow; Move Yourself Through Space Daily 00:54:26 Protocol 5: Be More Alert; Eyelids, Eye Size, Chin Position, Looking Up Versus Down 00:59:21 Protocol 6: Sleep In A Very Dark Room To Prevent Myopia (Nearsightedness) 01:02:55 Color Vision, Colorblindness, Use Magentas Not Reds, 01:04:32 Protocol 7: Keeping Your Vision Sharp With Distance Viewing Every Day 01:06:05 Protocol 8: Smooth Pursuit 01:08:48 Protocol 9: Near-Far Visual Training 2-3 Minutes 3-4 Times a Week 01:13:33 Protocol 10: Red Light, Emerging Protocol To Improve Photoreceptors & Vision 01:16:20 Dry Eyes; Blinking, Protocol 11 01:18:40 Lazy Eye, Binocular Vision, Amblyopia; Triggering Rapid Brain Plasticity; Protocol 12 01:24:48 Protocol 12: Determine Your Dominant Eye; Near-Far Training 01:27:57 Visual Hallucinations: The Consequence of An Under-Active Visual Brain 01:29:47 Protocol 13: Snellen Chart: A Simple, Cost-Free Way To Test & Maintain Vision 01:33:00 Vitamin A, Lutein, Idebenone, Zeaxanthine, Astaxanthin, Blood Flow 01:44:20 Summary of Protocols, Vital Point About Blood & Oxygen For Vision 01:46:00 Episode Length, Captions, Zero-Cost Support, Instagram, Searching Topics

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com

  • This episode I discuss endurance: our ability to perform effort over extended amounts of time. I describe the four kinds of endurance: muscular endurance, long-duration (single-set) efforts, and the two kinds of high-intensity interval training that can benefit our brain and various systems of our body. I discuss the fuel systems they each rely on and how to build up your capillary beds in muscle, and in the brain to increase oxygen utilization or improve postural endurance. I discuss efficiency of effort and maximizing quality of effort, as well as the simplest hydration formula. I review how our heart literally gets stronger (as a muscle) when we oxygenate muscles properly and ways to warm up with and improve respiration/breathing. I also discuss motivation for long bouts of work and the visual physiological basis of the "extra gear" we all can leverage for effort. Finally, I review how accelerating as we fatigue can allow us to access untapped energetic resources. As always, both science, mechanism and tools are discussed throughout

    Thank you to our sponsors:

    ROKA - https://www.roka.com - code: huberman InsideTracker - https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Athletic Greens - https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman

    Our Patreon page:

    https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman

    Supplements from Thorne:

    https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman

    Social:

    Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website: https://hubermanlab.com Join the Neural Network: https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network

    Mechanistic review of training adaptations: https://bit.ly/3wyejPK

    Example Protocols: https://hubermanlab.com/how-to-build-endurance-in-your-brain-and-body/

    Timestamps:

    00:00:00 Introduction
    00:05:45 Why Everyone Should Train Endurance
    00:09:49 All Episodes Now Searchable at hubermanlab.com & The Neural Network
    00:11:28 How To Maintain Muscle
    00:12:56 Endurance: It’s Not What You Think, Crossover With Brain Function
    00:14:38 Energy; Many Paths To ATP: Creatine, Glucose, Glycogen, Fat; Ketones
    00:18:00 The Vital Need For Oxygen: But Why?
    00:19:00 What Allows Us To Endure (Anything)?
    00:20:46 The 5 Things That Allow Us To Persist/Endure & What Causes Quitting
    00:22:50 Why You Quit: It IS All In Your Mind
    00:27:19 The “90% Mental” Myth
    00:28:10 The Critical Need For Carbohydrates & Electrolytes (& Sometimes Ketones)
    00:30:10 Phospho-Creatine, Glycogen, pH, Temperature Is Key
    00:31:36 Using Your Blood, Heart, & Lungs To Go Longer, Further, With More Intensity
    00:35:40 An Excellent Review on the Science of Training Adaptations (See Caption On YouTube)
    00:37:15 The 4 Kinds of Endurance
    00:38:53 Muscular Endurance: Powerful for Everyone: Posture, Performance, Resilience
    00:41:50 Protocol For Building Muscular Endurance. No Major Eccentric Component
    00:48:40 How to Make Muscles More Resilient: Mitochondrial Respiration, Neuronal Firing
    00:51:31 Long Duration Endurance: 12 minutes or More, One “Set”, Efficiency of Movement
    00:57:00 Why Everyone Should Train Long Duration Endurance: Capillaries In Muscle & Brain
    01:01:00 Two Distinct Types of High-Intensity Interval Training: Anaerobic & Aerobic
    01:02:20 Anaerobic HIIT: 3-12 Sets, Work:Rest Ratio of 3:1 or 1:3; Quality of Repetitions is Key
    01:07:00 Maximizing Oxygen Utilization, Heart Rate & Nerve-Muscle Energy Utilization
    01:10:59 Aerobic HIIT; 1:1 Work:Rest Ratio, Tapping Into All Energy Utilization Systems
    01:15:20 Building A Stronger Heart & Better Brain: Eccentric Loading the Heart: Stroke Volume
    01:20:10 Resistance & Weight Training: Useless for the Brain? What Is Good For the Brain?
    01:23:25 The Strength-Endurance Tradeoff; How Long to Wait Between Workouts
    01:25:45 Breathing During Endurance, Explosive and Weight Training: Nose, Mouth, Gears
    01:29:50 Intercostals & Diaphragmatic Breathing: Warming Up Intercostals Is Useful
    01:31:00 Increasing Motivation & Adrenaline
    01:32:10 Eliminating the “Side Cramp” With Physiological Sighs
    01:34:45 Accelerating Through “The Wall”: Accessing Alternative Fuel Sources; Ketone Use
    01:37:50 Hydration: Why Hydrate, How To Hydrate, & How Much Fluid To Drink
    01:41:35 “The Galpin Equation”; Gastric Emptying Time, Adapting Hydration Mid-Training
    01:44:20 Boosting Mitochondrial Density With Cold; Wait 6 Hours Before Cold/Between Training
    01:46:00 Accelerating Recovery with 5 Minute Parasympathetic Down-Shift After Training
    01:48:00 Leveraging The Visual System During Effort, Milestones; Dilation & Contraction; Pacing
    01:53:10 The Physiological Basis of Your “Extra Gear”, Accessing Your “Kick”, Steve Prefontaine
    01:56:00 Programming Examples; Concurrent Training
    01:57:57 Caffeine, Magnesium Malate to Reduce Soreness, Nitric Oxide, Beta-Alanine
    02:00:00 Synthesis; Next Episodes, Zero-Cost Ways to Support, Sponsors, Sources

    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.

    Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com